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ilostucll p. Homer Xibrarg 







3 1924 104 224 542 


The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 












With 190 Illustrations, Mostly Original 
Several of Them in Colors 





Copyright, 1906, by W. B. Saunders Company 



l J D .0 Q , 

1 C n 



Three years ago I began an experimental study of gastro-intestinal 
technic. The animals used for the experiments were mainly dogs, although 
cats were employed for certain operations. 

The object of the experiments was to simplify, where possible, the best 
gastro-intestinal operations. After careful study of an operation upon 
animals, the method was tried again upon the cadaver, for anatomical 

In this book, which is the result of three years of research, are collected 
certain of the standard operations upon the intestines and the stomach. 

No pretence is made of giving all of the methods in vogue, and many 
well-known operations have been omitted to give more room for illustrating 
the methods which were chosen. It is believed, however, that a knowledge 
of the technic, here included, will enable the surgeon to meet practically all 
of the requirements of gastro-intestinal surgery. 

I feel under the deepest obligations to Miss Florence Byrnes and to 
Mr. H. F. Aitken for the painstaking manner in which they have made their 
beautiful drawings. Certain of the drawings are modifications, or are copies 
of others already in print; credit is given to such drawings in the legends. 

Through the generosity of my publishers I am able to add seven 
colored anatomical plates from Sobotta's "Atlas and Text-book of Human 
Anatomy," which illustrate certain important surgical landmarks. 

The work on repair, in Chapter I, was done conjointly with Dr. F. B. 
Harrington, and is produced here with his permission. In fact, Dr. Harring- 
ton's suggestions have been so numerous and so valuable that the scope 
of the book has been greatly increased thereby. Prof. E. H. Nichols 
first suggested and then directed the experiments for the study of repair, a 
service for which I am greatly in his debt. 

Through the kindness of Dr. F. T. Murphy I am able to reproduce his 
original microscopical drawings, illustrating repair following the use of the 
elastic ligature. 

For the reproduction of the drawings upon the repair following the 
Murphy button I am indebted to Dr. J. H. Barbat, of San Francisco, who 


obligingly furnished me photographs of his sections, from which the draw- 
ings were made. 

The facts embodied in the discussion of intestinal localization are 
taken from the monographs of Dr. G. H. Monks, by whose courtesy I have 
been permitted to reproduce ten of his original drawings. 

Dr. Mixter has been most obliging in allowing me to publish his technic 
on colostomy, before he has done so himself. 

The interest shown by Professors Warren and Burrell encouraged me 
to attempt the task of writing a book, and their many kindnesses are grate- 
fully acknowledged. 

In the preparation of the manuscript, many works have been consulted, 
among the authors of which are : Tillmann, Bickham, Robson and Moyni- 
han, Gant, Cheyne and Burghard, Poirier, Delamere and Cuneo, Hartmann 
and Cuneo, Terrier and Baudouin, von Frey, Binnie, Moynihan, Connell, 
Gray, Quain, Testut, Tillaux, Sobotta, Stohr, Piersol, and many reprints. 

Personal communications from Doctors Finney, McGraw, W. J. Mayo 
and Connell have contributed valuable opinions which are embodied in the 
text, where they are referred to in detail. 

I wish to thank Dr. William C. Quinby for his careful correction of the 
manuscript and of the proof. 

48 Beacon Street, May, 1906. 


Cbarles Burnbam Sorter, /ID.2). 








The Repair or Intestinal Wounds 17 

The Structure of the Intestines and of the Stomach 17 

The Blood-vessels of the Intestines and of the Stomach -. 19 

The Lymph- vessels of the Intestines and of the Stomach 19 

Experimental Research on Repair 20 

Experiments with the Segmented Ring 20 

Experiments with the Plain Suture 22 

Repair Following the Use of the Murphy Button 47 

Repair Following the Use of the Elastic Ligature 63 


Suture Materials, Needles, Tying Knots, Sutures, and Clamps 65 

Suture Materials 65 

Needles 69 

Tying Knots 70 

Special Technic of Sutures 79 

Clamps 98 


The Anatomy of the Intestines 106 

The Blood-supply of the Intestines : 106 

The Lymphatics of the Intestines in 

Intestinal Localization 1 14 


Operations upon the Intestines 128 

Enterectomy 128 

End-to-End Intestinal Anastomosis 130 

Plain End-to-End Anastomosis 134 

End-to-End Anastomosis by the Mattress Stitch 145 

Mechanical Devices 149 

Formation of a Blind End , 158 

Suture in Two Layers 158 

The Purse-string Operation 160 

Lateral Intestinal Anastomosis 162 

Plain Suture 162 

The Mattress Suture 164 

Mechanical Devices 165 




End-to-side Intestinal Anastomosis *77 

Colostomy 182 

Left Inguinal Colostomy 183 

Anterior Colostomy 186 

Colostomy with the Rubber Ligature 188 

Temporary Colostomy with Glass Tube 196 


Operations upon the Stomach 201 

Gastrotomy 201 

Gastrostomy 202 

Witzel's Gastrostomy 206 

The Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy 210 

Pylorodiosis 211 

Loreta's Operation 212 

Hahn's Operation 217 

Operations for Non-malignant Stricture of the Pylorus 218 

Pyloroplasty 221 

Gastroduodenostomy 222 

Finney's Operation 225 

Kocher's Operation 233 

Gastroenterostomy 237 

Posterior Gastroenterostomy 237 

Anterior Gastroenterostomy 246 

Pylorectomy 249 

Partial Gastrectomy 269 

Excision of Ulcer 276 

Gastroplasty 281 

Gastrogastrostomy 282 

Gastroplication 293 

Index or Names 295 

Index 297 



i. Transverse Section of Human Stomach 18 

2. Longitudinal Section of Human Jejunum 18 

3 . End-to-end Anastomosis ; Three Days 25 

4. Lateral Intestinal Anastomosis; Five Days 27 

5. End-to-end Anastomosis; Eight Days 29 

6. Gastroenterostomy; Twelve Days 31 

7. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Fourteen Days 33 

8. Gastroenterostomy; Twenty-one Days 35 

9. End-to-end Anastomosis of Large Intestine; Six Weeks 37 

10. Anterior Gastroenterostomy by Plain Suture; Seventeen Months after Opera- 

tion 39 

11. Peptic Ulcer of the Jejunum of a Cat; Proving Fatal Ten Months after Anterior 

Gastroenterostomy 46 

12. Cross Section of Peptic Ulcer of the Jejunum 49 

13 . Repair Following the Use of the Murphy Button ; Three Days 51 

14. Repair Following the Use of the Murphy Button; Thirty-six Days 51 

15. Repair Following the Use of the Murphy Button; Forty-two Days 53 

16. Repair Following the Use of the Murphy Button; Sixty-three Days 53 

17. Section Across the Mass of Tissue Enclosed within the Loop of the Elastic Lig- 

ature; Five Days' Duration 55 

18. Section at Right Angles to the Line of Union of the Stomach and Jejunum; 

Twelve Days' Duration : 57 

19. Section at Right Angles to the Line of Union of the Stomach and Jejunum; 

Thirty Days' Duration 59 

20. Section Across an Adhesion; Seven Days' Duration, Which Had Formed Be- 

tween the Edges of the Jejunum after the Elastic Ligature Had Cut Out 61 

21. Method of Holding Curved Needle; Point Toward Operator 67 

22. Method of Holding Curved Needle; Point Away from Operator 67 

23. Milliner's Needle No. 3 69 

24. Moynihan's Curved Needle, as Modified by Scudder 69 

25. Method of Tying a Knot; First Step 70 

26. Method of Tying a Knot; Second Step 71 

27. Method of Tying a Knot; Third Step 71 

28. Method of Tying a Knot; Fourth Step 72 

29. Method of Tying a Knot; Fifth Step 72 

30. Method of Tying a Knot; Sixth Step 73 

31. Method of Tying a Knot; Seventh Step 73 

32. Method of Tying a Knot; Eighth Step 74 




33. Method of Tying a Knot; Ninth Step 74 

34. Richardson's One-hand Knot ; First Step 75 

35. Richardson's One-hand Knot; Second Step 75 

36. Richardson's One-hand Knot ; Third Step 76 

37. Seamstress Knot; First Step 77 

38. Seamstress Knot; Second Step 78 

39. Seamstress Knot; Third Step 78 

40. A Surgeon's Knot as it is Usually Tied 79 

41 and 42. The Seromuscular Stitch 80 

43. Cushing Right-angle Continuous Stitch; First Step 81 

44. Cushing Right-angle Continuous Stitch; Second Step 81 

45. Cushing Right-angle Continuous Stitch; Third Step 82 

46. Cushing Right-angle Continuous Stitch; Fourth Step 83 

47. The Lembert Stitch 83 

48. Lembert Interrupted Stitch, with Cross Section 84 

49. Lembert Continuous Stitch, with Cross Section 84 

50. Halsted Mattress Stitch 84 

51. Gould's Mattress Stitch 85 

52. Halsted Mattress Stitch, with Cross Section 85 

53 . Gould's Mattress Stitch, with Cross Section 86 

54 and 55. Use of Reversed Mattress Stitch for Burying Stump of Appendix 86 

56. The Purse-string Suture 87 

57. The Purse-string Stitch; Cross Section 87 

58. The Purse-string Suture for Lateral Anastomosis 88 

59. Murphy's Purse-string Suture, Used for Button 88 

60. Glover's Continuous Stitch, with Cross Section 89 

61. The Buttonhole Stitch, with Cross Section 90 

62. The Buttonhole Stitch Doubled go 

63. Penetrating Mattress Stitch; Cross Section of One-half of Stitch 91 

64. Maunsell's Mattress Mesenteric Stitch g 2 

65 and 66. Two Views of the Small Intestine g? 

67. Seromuscular Penetrating Mattress Stitch; Cross Section 95 

68. Seromuscular Penetrating Mattress Stitch; Showing Stitch Pulled Tight 96 

69. Straight Circumcision Clamp for Intestine gg 

70. Rubber Tubing for Intestinal and Small Stomach Clamps 99 

71. Maylard's Method of Using Forceps for Intestinal Clamps 100 

72. Pean's Method of Using Hemostatic Forceps and Rubber Tube in Place of 

Clamp 10I 

73. Krause's Stomach Clamp IO , 

74. Gould's Stomach Clamp I0 , 

75. Scudder's Straight Stomach Clamp IO , 

76. Gould's Stomach Clamp I04 

77. Harrington's Straight Stomach Clamp I04 

78. Kocher's Crushing Clamp I04 

79. The Blood-vessels of the Mesentery of the Small Intestine (Colors) 107 

80. Showing Line of Mesenteric Root Traced on Abdominal Wall 115 



81. Showing Two Oblique Lines Drawn at Right Angles to the Two Extremities of 

the Mesenteric Root 115 

82. A Loop of Intestine, the Middle of Which is Exactly Three Feet from the End 

of the Duodenum 119 

83. A Loop of Intestine at Six Feet 119 

84. A Loop of Intestine at Nine Feet 121 

85. A Loop of Intestine at Twelve Feet 121 

86. A Loop of Intestine at Seventeen Feet 123 

87. A Loop of Intestine at Twenty Feet 123 

88. Showing Monks' Method of Determining the Real Direction of the Gut 125 

89. Showing How a Straight Instrument Passed into the Gut May Engage its Free 

Border 132 

90. End-to-end Intestinal Anastomosis 137 

91. Showing Several Methods of Sewing Together the Cut Mesenteric Edges after 

Resection of the Bowel 139 

92. End-to-end Anastomosis; Mattress Mesenteric Stitch 139 

93. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Sewing Mesenteric Third of Circumference 141 

94. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Closing in the Last Third of the Circumference 141 

95. End-to-end Anastomosis; Placing the Interrupted Lembert Stitches 143 

96. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Suture Completed 143 

97. Omental Graft 144 

98. End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress; Showing Method of Placing the 

Three Mattress Mesenteric Stitches 146 

99. End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress ; Showing First Third of Bowel 

Circumference Developed 147 

100. End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress; Showing the Second Third of 

Bowel Circumference Developed 148 

101. End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress; Showing Closing in of the Last 

Third of the Bowel Circumference 149 

102. End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress; Showing Introduction of Last 

Stitch 150 

103. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Showing Introduction of Murphy Button 151 

104. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Showing Button Halves Snapped Together 151 

105. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Harrington's Segmented Ring 155 

106. End-to-end Anastomosis, Harrington's Segmented Ring; Showing Purse- 

strings and Mattress Mesenteric Stitch 156 

107. End-to-end Anastomosis, Harrington's Segmented Ring; Showing Continuous 

Seromuscular Suture 156 

108. End-to-end Anastomosis ; Robson's Decalcified Bone Bobbin 158 

109. Formation of Blind End; Inner Continuous Glover's Stitch 159 

no. Formation of Blind End; Outer Layer of Reversed Mattress Stitches 159 

in. Formation of Blind End; Purse-string in Position 161 

112. Formation of Blind End; Invagination and Purse-string Tied 161 

113. Formation of Blind End; Cross Section 161 

114. Lateral Intestinal Anastomosis 163 

115 an d II6 - Lateral Anastomosis with Jaboulay's Button 167 



117. McLean Needle for the Rubber Ligature 17 1 

118. Lateral Anastomosis by McGraw Ligature; First Seromuscular Stitch Placed.. 174 

119. Lateral Anastomosis by McGraw Ligature; Ligature being Drawn Taut 175 

120. Lateral Anastomosis by McGraw Ligature; Showing the Three Stages of the 

Technic *75 

121. Lateral Anastomosis by McGraw Ligature; Cross Section 177 

122. Lateral Anastomosis by McGraw Ligature; Showing Actual Opening 177 

123. End-to-side Anastomosis, Gould's Method; Showing First Mattress Stitch 179 

124. End-to-side Anastomosis, Gould's Method; Showing First Mattress Stitch Tied. 179 

125. End-to-side Anastomosis, Gould's Method; Showing Suture Nearly Completed. . 179 

1 26. End-to-side Anastomosis ; Cross Section 181 

127. Left Inguinal Colostomy; Showing Line of Incision 183 

128. Left Inguinal Colostomy; Showing Method of Placing Stitches 184 

129. Left Inguinal Colostomy; Showing Coils Drawn Together by Mesenteric Stitch. 185 

130. Left Inguinal Colostomy; Showing Afferent and Efferent Coils Amputated 186 

131. Mixter's Anterior Colostomy; Showing Line of Incision 189 

132. Anterior Colostomy; Showing Flap of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue 189 

133. Anterior Colostomy; Showing Sigmoid withdrawn and Mesentery Incised 191 

134. Anterior Colostomy; Showing Flap Fastened 193 

135. Anterior Colostomy; Showing Sigmoid Resected 193 

136. Cross Section of Anterior Colostomy (Horizontal) 195 

137. McGraw's Colostomy with Resection; Rubber Ligature Placed 197 

138. McGraw's Colostomy with Resection; Resection Completed 197 

139. McGraw's Colostomy with Resection; Line of Original Incision 199 

140. Gastrotomy 203 

141. Witzel's Gastrostomy; Catheter Partly Buried in Stomach 207 

142. Witzel's Gastrostomy; Eye of the Catheter Inserted in Stomach 207 

143. Witzel's Gastrostomy; Stomach Fastened to Anterior Abdominal Wall 209 

144. Witzel's Gastrostomy; Cross Section 209 

145. Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy; Lines of Incision 211 

146. Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy; Bridge of Skin Dissected Up 213 

147. Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy; Cone of Stomach Held in Place with Forceps . . 213 

148. Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy; Skin Closed Over Base of Cone 215 

149. Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy; Cross Section 215 

150. Pylorodiosis, Hahn's Method; Steadying Pylorus 218 

151 and 152. Heinecke-Mikulicz Pyloroplasty 223 

153. Relations of the Posterior Abdominal Wall (Colors) facing 226 

154. Mobilization of the Second Portion of the Duodenum 228 

155. Finney's Gastroduodenostomy; Showing Application of Clamps 229 

136. Finney's Gastroduodenostomy; First Seromuscular Suture 230 

157. Finney's Gastroduodenostomy; Inner Continuous Through-and-through Suture 231 

158. Finney's Gastroduodenostomy; Cross Section before Operation 232 

159. Finney's Gastroduodenostomy; Cross Section after Operation 232 

160. Kocher's Gastroduodenostomy 231; 

161. Relations of the Great Omentum and the Stomach (Colors) facing 238 

162. The Great Omentum Turned Up Exposing the Small Intestines (Colors) . .facing 238 



163. Transverse Colon Lifted Up Over the Thorax (Colors) lacing 238 

164. The Small Intestine Cut Off (Colors) facing 238 

165. Posterior Gastroenterostomy; Clamps Applied 239 

166. Posterior Gastroenterostomy; Inner Through-and-through Suture 242 

167. Posterior Gastroenterostomy; Completed 243 

168. Gastroenterostomy; Cross Section 245 

169. Diagram, Anterior Gastroenterostomy 247 

170. The Blood Supply of the Stomach (Colors) 251 

171. The Lymphatic Drainage of the Stomach, to Illustrate Cuneo's Division into 

Territories (Colors) 253 

172. Relations Around the Head of the Pancreas (Colors) facing 258 

173. Pylorectomy; Showing Gastric and Pyloric Arteries Tied and Cut 259 

174. Pylorectomy, Showing Section of Duodenum Between Clamps, Distal End 

Partly Closed in 261 

175. Sound Introduced Through the Foramen of Winslow (Colors) facing 264 

176. Gastrocolic Omentum Cut and Stomach Lifted; Exposing the Lesser Peritoneal 

Cavity (Colors) facing 264 

177. Pylorectomy; Showing Extension of Growth 265 

178. Pylorectomy; Showing Method of Holding the Scissors 266 

179. Pylorectomy; Showing Distal End of Duodenum Wholly Closed in 267 

180. Resection of the Middle Portion of the Stomach; Showing Harrington's Straight 

Clamps in Position 271 

181. Resection of the Middle Portion of the Stomach; Showing End-to-end Anasto- 

mosis after Resection 273 

182. Resection of the Middle Portion of the Stomach; Showing Suture Completed. . . 275 

183. Resection of an Ulcer on the Lesser Curvature; Showing Clamps and Vessels Tied 277 

184. Resection of an Ulcer on the Lesser Curvature; Showing Posterior Edges of 

Wound Approximated 279 

185. Gastroplasty for Hour-glass Stomach 281 

186. Gastroplasty 283 

187. Gastrogastrostomy for Hour-glass Stomach 285 

188. Gastroplication ; Showing Method of Placing the Stitches 287 

189. Gastroplication; Showing Anterior Wall Plaited 289 

190. Gastroplication; Cross Section 291 








(Figs, i and 2.) 

In order to understand the repair of intestinal wounds, a knowledge 
of the histology of the gastrointestinal canal is necessary. A brief de- 
scription of the histology of these organs is given below, which has been 
taken, chiefly, from Stohr 1 and Piersol. 2 

The stomach and the small and the large intestines are composed of 
four coats, the serous, the muscular, the submucous, and the mucous. 
Although the characteristics of the individual layers change somewhat 
according to the digestive functions which they are required to perform, 
these variations are not of importance in the process of repair. 

The external, or serous, coat is derived from the peritoneum, and 
"consists, principally, of fibrous connective tissue and numerous elastic 
networks; the free surface is covered by a simple layer of flat polygonal 
cells" (Stohr). 

1 Stohr. Text-Book of Histology, p. 162. 
3 Piersol. Normal Histology, p. 174. 




The muscular coat consists of a thick inner circular layer, and a thin 
outer longitudinal layer. In the stomach the arrangement is varied by the 
addition of a third layer of oblique fibers, which is derived from the esoph- 
agus. In the colon the longitudinal muscle-fibers are collected mainly 


\ Mucosae. 

} ouhmucosa-. 

1 Inner circular 
layer of 

layer of 

J Serosa-. 

Fig. i. — Transverse Section oy Human Stomach. X 16. (After Stohr.) 


\ ouh/nuxosa. 
I \ Inner circular 
\ Outer lo)iyitu.dinjLL 

Fig. 2. 

} Serosa,. 

-Longitudinal Section or Human Jejunum, x 16. (After Stohr. 1 

into three flat bands which are placed on the mesenteric, the anterior, and 
the inner borders of this portion of the large intestine. 

The submucous coat is composed of loosely united connective tissue- 
bundles, and elastic fibers, and occasionally contains small clusters of fat 


The internal, or mucous, coat is soft, highly vascular, and covered 
with epithelium which varies markedly according to its situation in the 
digestive tube. In it are placed the glandular elements which take part in 
the digestive process. The glandular layer of the mucous membrane is 
separated from the submucosa by two thin layers of smooth muscle-fibers 
called the muscularis mucosa, and, from this layer, other muscle-fibers 
are given off which interlace among the glands of the mucous layer proper. 
The muscularis mucosas achieves its great importance from its tough 
structure, which is peculiarly adapted to resist the pull of a stitch. It is 
the only portion of the intestinal wall which has this valuable quality. 


The blood-vessels of the stomach and of the large intestine have a 
precisely similar distribution, which is modified in the small intestine by 
the presence of the villi. 

Upon entering the serosa of the stomach and of the large intestine the 
arteries give off small branches to the serosa, thence, piercing the muscu- 
laris, which they also supply, they pass to the submucosa to form a network 
which is placed within this layer parallel to the surface of the bowel. In the 
healing of intestinal wounds it will be seen later that the vessels which take 
the most active part in the process arise from the submucosa. 

The small branches which arise from the submucous plexus ascend 
through the mucous membrane and from another network in the tunica 
■propria at the base of the glands. The gland-tubules and crypts are sup- 
plied from this plexus. 

The vessels of the small intestine which supply the crypts are distrib- 
uted in the same manner as in the large intestine. The vessels are other- 
wise changed to adapt themselves to the special anatomy of the small in- 
testine, — i. e., villi, glands of Brunner, lymph-nodes, etc. 


The lymph-vessels of the stomach and of the large intestine take their 
origin in the mucous membrane as blind capillaries, and descend between 

1 Stohr. Text-Book of Histology, p. 168. 

2 Stohr. Text-Book of Histology, p. 169. 


the gland-follicles. In the mucous membrane of the small intestine the 
lymph-vessels begin in the axes of the villi. All these vessels descend 
and join in a capillary plexus lying at the base of the glands. This plexus 
extends parallel to the surface and communicates by numerous anasto- 
moses with a wide-meshed plexus in the submucosa. Proceeding from 
this network, the lymph-vessels penetrate the muscular coat, receiving trib- 
utaries from the plexus situated between the circular and the longitu- 
dinal muscular strata, the so-called intramuscular lymphatic plexus, which 
receives the lymph supply from both muscular layers. The vessels run 
beneath the serous coat to the mesenteric border, and pass on between its 


The study of repair which follows was done with Dr. F. B. Harrington 
in the Laboratory of Surgical Pathology at Harvard Medical School. 1 
The data was obtained from three sources: 

(i) A series of twenty-two experiments upon fourteen dogs and four 
cats. In these animals the anastomoses were made with the assistance 
of the Harrington segmented ring. 

(2) A series of experiments upon ten cats and three dogs. These 
experiments were not done primarily for the study of repair, but had 
in view the working out of certain technic in the operation of gastroenter- 
ostomy. These experiments were done without the aid of a mechanical 
device. Specimens taken from these animals were used for comparison 
with the first series. 

(3) Sections of anastomoses done on human beings, kindly furnished 
by Dr. Nichols. 


The technic for introducing the ring and performing the anastomosis 
is briefly as follows: 

(1) The cut bowel-ends are fastened over the ring by means of soluble 
purse-string sutures. These sutures perform the double duty of attaching 
the bowels to the ring, thus facilitating the introduction of the mesenteric 

1 Harrington and Gould. Annals of Surgery, November, 1904. 



and the peritoneal stitches, as well as of holding the segments of the ring 
together during the first four or five days succeeding the operation. 

(2) The Maunsell mattress-mesenteric stitch is used to bring together 
the mesenteric borders, after tying the purse-strings. 

(3) The peritoneum is approximated with a continuous Cushing right- 
angle suture. The suture material used for the purse-strings was No. 2 
plain catgut; for the mattress-mesenteric stitch, No. 1 chromic catgut; for 
the Cushing right-angle stitch, No. 1 Pagenstecher's celloidin linen thread. 
A complete illustrated description of the three stitches mentioned above 
is to be found in Chapter II. 


End-to-end intestinal anastomoses 8 

Lateral intestinal anastomoses 3 

Gastrointestinal anastomoses 7 

— 18 
Gastrogastrostomies 4 

End-to-end. (Dogs.) 

Exp. elapsed after 

i day 
i day 
3 days 
7 days 

7 days 

8 days 
14 days 
42 days 

Condition of suture 
at autopsy. 



Slough of suture, too large ring 1 






Segments found. 

At site of suture. 

At site of suture. 

At site of suture. 


Two in ileum, two in rectum. 

Ileum and rectum. 

Not found (passed). 

Not found (passed). 



S days 
10 months 
12 months 

Still alive 
Still alive 

Lateral Intestinal. (Dogs.) 

Near suture. 







3 days 
7 days 
7 days 
10 days 
12 days 
14 days 
21 days 

Gastroenterostomies. (Dogs.) 

Intact Three in pylorus (stomach), one in small 

Intact Ileum. [intestine. 

Intact Ileum. 

Intact Rectum. 

Intact Large intestine and rectum. 

Intact Three in large intestine and rectum. 

Intact Not found (passed). 

1 The intestine in this case was so stretched over the ring that it was anaemic. As it was an 
early case, the importance of breaking down the ring under such circumstances was not recog- 



Gasteogasteostomies. (Cats.) 
To determine how long ring remains in situ. 


24 hours 



3 days 



S days 



6 days 


Segments held firmly in place. 
Segments held firmly in place. 
Segments still in place, loosely. 
Ring broken down, segments all in situ. 

When an anastomosis is performed without the aid of a mechanical 
device it is customary to employ two layers of stitches : an inner continuous 
stitch which penetrates all coats, and brings together the cut edges ; an outer 
stitch, either continuous or interrupted, for approximating the peritoneal 
surfaces around the joint. The second series of experiments of ten cats 
and three dogs was done with the plain suture technic. 


Time elapsed 

Condition of suture 


after operation. 

at autopsy. 



15 hours. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


24 hours. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


3 days. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


7 days. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


17 days. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


21 days. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


39 days. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


6 weeks. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


10 months. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


17 months. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


3 weeks. 


Posterior Gast. Ent. 


6 weeks. 


Anterior Gast. Ent. 


16 weeks. 


Posterior Gast. Ent. 

The repair following the use of the two layers of stitches was found 
to be practically identical with that following the use of. the ring, thus 
showing that an inner layer of stitches has little influence upon the healing 
of the wound. The facts given below may be regarded, therefore, as 
characteristic of repair succeeding the use of the plain suture in two layers, 
as well as after the use of mechanical devices which demand but one layer 
of sutures. Three drawings were made from this series. 

The sections taken from human beings were four in number, and 
consisted of end-to-end anastomoses, of two days, four days, seven days, 
and ten days, respectively. 


Details of the Repair. — The close approximation of two serous surfaces, 
which is characteristic of intestinal sutures, results in a rapid exudation 
from the apposed surfaces. This exudation appears in a very few hours 
and hermetically seals the wound. Every coat of the bowel is soon pene- 
trated by this exudate, rapidly destroying the endothelium on the outside 
of the bowel. 

Repair of the Mucous Membrane.— For the first few hours after the 
suture the mucous membrane is the seat of a marked active hyperemia 
with more or less bloody extravasation, the mucous edges being dark red 
and elevated from the coats below. This condition is followed by an exu- 
dation which extends into the glandular tissue until, at the end of three 
days, the glands disappear about the cut edge for two to five millimeters. 
When a large invagination has been made, in the process of suture, the sub- 
mucosa becomes so swollen and edematous that it probably interferes 
thereby with the circulation of the mucous membrane. Under such con- 
ditions the slough of the mucous membrane is correspondingly extensive. 
The amount of destruction of mucous membrane varies somewhat; but 
usually the slough is about three to five millimeters in width. At the end 
of five days, the slough generally separates, leaving a clean line. The above 
series of changes takes place in all sutures, although a separate suture of 
the mucous membrane seems distinctly to retard the repair for reasons 
given later. 

The reproduction of glands is more rapid in end-to-end than in lateral 
sutures. If the inturn has been a moderate one, the mucous membrane 
will cover in the ulcer in about eight days. The glands themselves, though 
atypical in shape, possess all the characteristics of mucous glands. At the 
end of eight days the line of suture is represented by a narrow scar situated 
in the middle of what was formerly the ulcerated area. After gastroenter- 
ostomy and lateral intestinal suture, the cleaning away of the slough takes 
place quickly; but the subsequent ingrowing of the mucous membrane is 
slow, since the interval to be crossed is a wide one. The process is exactly 
analogous to the healing of a superficial ulcer on the surface of the body. 
In these cases mitotic figures were seen at the end of five, but were numer- 
ous only at the end of ten days. The nuclear division, as a rule, first came 
in the mucosa of the stomach. On the tenth day a single line of cells starts 


from the stomach and rapidly crosses the floor of the ulcer. The complete 
closing in of the bare area is much hindered by the presence of sutures, 
which, even though absorbed, leave irregular holes that are but slowly 
smoothed over. At the end of twenty-one days the line of suture is cov- 
ered by a continuous though low mucous membrane. The line of demar- 
cation between the stomach and intestinal glands is a sharp one, and is 
situated near the center of the old ulcer. These glands, though atypically 
shaped, have normal functional power (goblet cells, etc.) (Figs. 3 to 10 
inclusive) . 

The new mucous membrane has no definite muscularis mucosae. At 
first it rests upon a base of dense granulation tissue. This coat is very slow 
to repair; but, at the end of six weeks, a substitute muscularis mucosa? has 
been acquired, which consists largely of connective tissue, but in which are 
found fibers closely resembling smooth muscle. This layer has no sharp 
limits, and fades away into the scar tissue beneath. 

Repair of the serous surfaces. — The formation of plastic exudate 
does not cease with the resulting adhesion of the inturned serous coats, but 
appears externally for a distance of three to five centimeters beyond the line 
of suture, thus acting like an external callus. The transformation of the 
exudate into granulation tissue is rapid. In three days a large number of 
new connective-tissue cells have been laid down, among which are a few 
new blood-vessels arising from the vessels in the underlying muscular coat. 
Entire organization of the inner exudate requires at least seven, the outer 
at least ten, days. After complete organization, the connective tissue 
gradually disappears, finally remaining as a thick scar, which reaches for 
a varying distance over the adjacent bowel and, dipping down into the 
depth of the suture, holds the bowel walls firmly together by thick strong 
bands. Fourteen days are required for the completion of this sequence. 

Repair of muscular coats. — The muscular coats play a passive role 
during the first forty-eight hours after the suture. The muscle-bundles 
are penetrated by extravasated blood and by exudate throughout their 
whole thickness. After the second day new blood-vessels bud out into the 
exudate and assist in its organization. When the inflammatory process 
has subsided, the muscle-ends are held together by scar tissue arising from 
the intermuscular connective tissue. This rapidly contracts and approxi- 

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Fig. io. — Anterior Gastroenterostomy, by. Plain Suture, Seventeen Months after Operation. 
Note the great width of the submucosa, that the muscularis mucosa? has not yet reproduced itself; 
that the peritoneal surface of the anastomosis has disappeared, the latter being due to adhesion to the 
omentum. The omental adhesions have been lost in making the section. 



mates the separated muscle-ends, so that the ultimate scar is an extremely 
narrow one and may be entirely unrecognizable by the naked eye. 

Repair of the submucosa. — The loose texture of the submucosa 
allows easy entrance to the exudate. Almost at once this layer becomes 
distended and edematous for several centimeters on either side of the wound. 
At the end of the inturned bowel this layer is often as thick as all the others 
combined. As organization proceeds, the submucosa is filled with large 
and small blood-vessels and young connective-tissue cells which, running 
parallel to the surface of the bowel, grow out into the exudate in the bottom 
of the ulcer, thus forming the base of the internal ulcer. Ultimately the ulcer 
is converted into scar tissue and is covered by an atypical mucous mem- 
brane. From comparison with a limited number of clinically successful 
intestinal anastomoses in human beings, it seems that the analogy of the 
process in these animal experiments and in human beings is a very close 
one, both in histological and in gross appearances. 

Mall's experiments. — Mall's experiments 1 with animals, in 1887, 
led him to divide the repair of intestinal wounds into the following stages : 

(1) An immediate fibrous union of the serous surfaces. 

(2) A destruction of the protruding parts between the two flaps of the 
mucosa. This destruction is brought about in two ways: a, necrosis, b, the 
destroying power of those crypts which have returned to their embryonic type. 2 

(3) Regeneration of the mucous membrane. Soon after the intestine 
is sutured, the cut ends of the mucous membrane are destroyed. The bases 
of the crypts, however, seem to be more resistant and soon show many 
karyokinetic figures within the epithelial cells. The multiplication of cells 
in this portion, which is probably only an exaggeration of the normal 
process, soon causes this layer to spread in all directions. These cells 
cover the whole surface within their reach, besides sending cystiform 
invaginations into the tissue. This growth continues until it meets cells 
from the opposite side, when, of course, it cannot go further. The epithelial 


1 F. Mall. Johns Hopkins Hospital Reports, Vol. I, p. 76. 

2 Ibid. Mall explains more fully in the text the process by which these crypts return to the 
embryonic type. When the submucosa is torn by the needle, a fissure 'is made which heals by 
granulation. In the granulation tissue filling these fissures the crypts are frequently embedded, 
being lined with a single layer of cells of the embryonic type. This is shown in Figs. 4 and 8 of 
my sections. 



covering at once sends invaginations into the tissue which are converted 
into crypts, between which newly formed villi arise and grow into the 
lumen of the intestine. If the conditions are favorable, the mucous mem- 
brane is fully regenerated at the end of three weeks. 

(4) Straightening of the suture. During the fourth week the stitches 
begin to lose their hold in the submucosa, thus allowing the intestine to 
straighten out. While the regeneration of the mucosa is taking place, the 
submucosa of one side is being united by fibrous tissue with the submu- 
cosa of the other. The straightening of the suture now allows the ends of 
the muscle-coats to be arranged in a straight line, besides placing the 
embryonic mucosa under a greater pressure, thus favoring its maturation. 
Before the straightening is complete there is a regeneration of muscular 
tissue, most marked in the muscular is mucosae. 

The stratum fibrosum 1 is most resistant and does not begin to regener- 
ate until the sixth week. Up to this time its edge is marked by a sharp 
border, which, during the sixth week, becomes less defined and projects 
across the line of suture. 

At the end of two months all the coats are fully regenerated and the 
line of suture can hardly be made out microscopically, while macroscopic- 
ally it is marked by a thickening of the intestinal walls. 

In comparing Mall's results with my own, a few discrepancies will be 
found. I have not been able to demonstrate repair of the muscularis mucosee 
in any specimen, whether done with the segmented ring or by plain suture. 
On the contrary, Mall's sections showed that both strata of muscle-fibres 
which make up this layer had been reproduced. Attention is called to 
Fig. 10, a specimen obtained seventeen months after operation (gastro- 
enterostomy). The scar joining the cut ends of the muscularis mucosas 
consists wholly of connective tissue; there is no evidence whatever of 
muscle-fibres at the point of union. 

The time required for the regeneration of the mucous membrane with 
closure of the internal ulcer, was rather longer in Mall's specimens than 
in my own. In the latter the internal ulcer was covered with mucous 
membrane in seven days, as a rule, though this layer continued to grow in 
thickness for another week. The period set by Mall for complete regener- 

1 For the histology of the dog's intestine see Abhandl. d. K. S. Ges. d. Wiss., 1887, Bd. xiv. 


ation of the mucous membrane is three weeks, but a comparison is unsatis- 
factory since the exact moment of complete restoration of the mucous mem- 
brane is impossible to determine. 

Loosening of the seromuscular stitches, with consequent straightening 
of the joint, was not seen in any of my experiments, although observed 
by Mall four weeks after the original anastomoses. Other than the dif- 
ferences mentioned above, the facts observed in the two series of experi- 
ments are practically identical. 

Peptic Ulcer of the Jejunum. — One of the rare complications which 
follows gastroenterostomy is peptic ulcer of the jejunum. Tiegel 1 has 
collected twenty-two cases of this sort. He omitted, however, to include 
in his list two cases described by Robson 2 in 1904, which makes a total of 
twenty-four reported cases. 

Frequency. — Kausch 3 in 1900 reported two cases in a series of one 
hundred and sixty gastroenterostomies done in the clinic of Professor 
Mikulicz. As reported by Watts 4 this is probably too small a proportion. 

The age of the patients varied between four months (Mikulicz's case) 
and fifty-nine years, the majority of the patients, however, being more than 
thirty years old and of the male sex. 

Etiology. — Tiegel calls attention to the fact that the original gastro- 
enterostomy was always done to relieve benign disease of the stomach, 
usually pyloric stenosis. In one case the stenosis was congenital, in another 
the ulcer was in the duodenum. The acidity 0} the gastric juice has always 
played a prominent role in the theoretical explanation of the cause of peptic 
jejunal ulcer. In Tiegel's series the stomach contents were examined in 
only a small number of cases. The results showed that hydrochloric acid 
was present in excess in some, while in others it was diminished, the ma- 
jority being in the favor of hyperacidity. Certain cases which were ex- 
amined in the interval between the first operation and the onset of the 
symptoms of secondary ulcer, showed some subacidity, others hyperacidity. 

Robson 5 believes that the true cause of peptic ulcer, whether gastric, 

1 Tiegel. Mittheilungen a. d. Grenzgeb. der Med. und Chir., Vol. xm, 1905, p. 897. 

2 Robson. Annals of Surgery, 1904, Vol. XL, p. 186. 

3 Kausch. Verhandl. d. Deutsch. Gesellsch. fur Chir., Bd. xxvm, 1899, S. 74; Bd. xxrx, 
1902, S. 140, and Bd. xxxi, 1902, S. 115. 

4 Watts. Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, July, 1903. R Robson. Loc. cit. 


duodenal, or jejunal, is probably due to a mild form of sepsis which leads 
to gastritis and an excess of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice. 

Kocher 1 thinks that the acid gastric juice may stimulate circular con- 
traction of the duodenum just below the stomach with the formation of 
a kind of cul-de-sac where contact with the gastric juice may be prolonged, 
and give rise to ulceration. He claims to have seen such contractions 
several times in cases of gastroenterostomy which he has explored. 

Traumatism of the abdomen preceded one of Hahn's 2 cases, and for 
this reason was believed by him to have led directly to the condition. 

On the whole we can draw no definite conclusion in regard to the etio- 
logical significance of hyperacidity of the gastric juice. 

Tiegel regards the effect of circulatory disturbances upon the attached 
intestine as important possible causes of secondary ulcer (Virchow 3 ). 
Some light is shed on the subject by noting the methods used for perform- 
ing the primary gastroenterostomy. In sixteen cases (eighteen, with 
Robson's two cases), the anterior method of anastomosis was adopted, in 
seven of which an additional enteroenterostomy was done, including one 
Y operation of Roux. In five cases the operation was retrocolic and pos- 
terior, but with a longer intestinal loop than that used at the present. 

Welch 4 found that out of 793 cases of peptic ulcer of the stomach, 
collected from the statistics of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, 288 were on the 
lesser curvature; 235 on the posterior wall; 95 at the pylorus; 69 on the 
anterior wall; 50 at the cardia; 29 at the fundus, and 27 on the greater 
curvature. It is worth noting that, although peptic ulcer of the stomach is 
most frequently found on the lesser curvature and the posterior wall, peptic 
jejunal ulcer nearly always comes after an anterior operation. 

The site of the secondary ulcer in Tiegel's series was as follows: In 
10 instances it was found near the gastric stoma; in 1 near the opening of 
the enteroenterostomy; in 10 cases it was in the jejunum, separated one to 
seven centimeters from the gastroenterostomy opening; in 3 cases the ulcers 
were multiple, in 7 there were also ulcers in the stomach. 

1 Kocher. Verhandl. d. Deutsch. Gesellsch. fur Chir., Bd. xxxi, 1902, S. 103. 

- Hahn. Ibid., Bd. xxviii, 1899, S. 74, and Bd. xxxi, 1902, S. 114. 

3 Virchow. Virch. Arch., Bd. 5, S. 362. 

1 Welch. Pepper's System of Medicine, 1885, Vol. 11, p. 482. 


It is probable that the jejunum is more open to circulatory disturbances 
when attached by the anterior than by the posterior method, in view of the 
statistics of 18 anterior against 5 posterior. Tiegel suggests that the circu- 
lation may be impeded in several ways. The coil which passes in front of 
the transverse colon may be too short and, therefore, be subjected to tension 
from stretching, or else kinks may occur in the mesentery itself and cut off 
a part of the blood supply. Another factor contributing to restrict the 
blood supply of the jejunal coil is arteriosclerosis. In one of Steinthal's 
cases marked atheroma was associated with a slight kinking of the mes- 
entery. Direct injury to the mucous membrane has been mentioned as a 
cause of peptic jejunal ulcer. This may occur at the time of operation, 
from manipulation of the instruments, or it may come later from 
scratching the mucous membrane with hard particles of food. 

In comparing the human with the two reported experimental cases it 
will be seen that analogous results have been obtained. In the cases of 
Watts (dog), and of the author (cat), the primary operations were both 
anterior gastroenterostomies. It will be remembered that, as far as position 
goes, the anterior wall of the quadruped stomach corresponds to the 
greater curvature of human beings, and that the posterior gastroenter- 
ostomy in man is the nearest approach to the anterior gastroenterostomy 
in animals. 1 However, the position of the four-footed animal allows the 
stomach to press downward upon the anastomosis, and this might lead to 
circulatory disturbance by pressure, kinking, or stretching, as in the 
human being. 

Pathology. — Tiegel states that growth of a peptic ulcer of the jejunum 
is a process wholly similar to the formation of a peptic ulcer of the 
stomach. There is first an effusion of blood into the mucous membrane, 
usually of small extent, followed later by death and digestion of the affected 
area. As Steinthal has observed, the loss of substance extending only 
through the mucous membrane, at first, finally reaches down through all 
the layers of the intestinal wall. In cases which take a very acute course 
the shape of the ulcer is round, and the walls smooth and steep. The 
more slowly advancing lesions, on the contrary, attack the layers sepa- 
rately, so that the walls of the ulcer are terraced. Finally, a secondary 

1 Cannon and Blake. Annals of Surgery, May, 1905. 

4 6 


inflammatory reaction is set up which obscures more or less the character- 
istics of the original lesion. The ulcer walls become infiltrated, tumefied, 
and firm; and the shape of the ulcer irregular. In cases of longer duration 
adhesions form with neighboring organs, into which the ulcer finally per- 
forates. According to Lennander 1 (quoted by Tiegel), no pain-perceiving 
nerves are situated in the stomach or intestine. Diseases of these organs 
produce no pain unless the process has reached the peritoneum. For this 
reason there may be a perforation of the ulcer without previous symptoms. 
The drawings shown are from a specimen taken from the second series. 
The animal was an undersized female cat. The operation was an anterior 

Fig. ii. — Peptic Ulcer of the Jejunum of a Cat, Proving Fatal Ten Months after Anterior 

By looking down through the stoma, the jejunum can be seen. Note entrance and exit of proximal 
and distal coils, respectively. About entrance of proximal coil is a. large punched-out ulcer covering 
half of the patch of jejunum. This ulcer extends out beneath the line of suture. 

gastroenterostomy done with clamps, the incision being four centimeters 
in length; linen thread was used for both layers of sutures. The animal 
remained in good health for eight months after the operation, after which 
it began to fail rapidly, with symptoms of pain, vomiting, and cramps of the 
abdominal muscles. The cat died of marasmus ten months after operation. 

1 Lennander. Cent, fur Chir., 1901, S. 209. 


Fig. 11 is a drawing from the gross specimen. The stomach has been 
opened and its walls cut away up to within a short distance of the anasto- 
mosis, showing the jejunal patch blocking the stoma in the anterior gastric- 
wall. An examination of the portion of the jejunum underlying the gastric 
opening shows it to be the seat of an extensive punched-out ulceration about 
the entrance of the proximal coil. The ulceration has extended laterally 
into the gastrointestinal suture line, thus undermining the latter's edge for 
a distance of one-eighth to one -half inch. It is important to observe that, 
although the ulcer was situated exactly at the suture line, no contraction of 
the stoma had resulted, the opening of four centimeters originally made at 
the operation being found the same at death. 

The microscopical section (Fig. 12) explains well the condition of affairs. 
Apparently the mucous membrane of the stomach, adjacent to the ulcer, 
is normal, since no thickening or excoriation is to be seen. The sides of 
the ulcer are punched out sharply, while at the junction of the sides with 
the base a deep excavation extends out beneath the edges of the ulcer. In 
the base of the ulcer little of the jejunal tissue can be found, its normal 
structure being replaced by a thin layer of granulation tissue. Within the 
granulation tissue are embedded a few muscle-fibers, but it is evident that 
the ulcer had completely cut through all coats of the jejunum. The activity 
of the repair in responding to the irritation of the lesion had 'resulted in the 
formation of a provisional base for the ulcer, thus preventing immediate 
perforation. It is probable that this provisional base would not have con- 
trolled the advance of the ulceration had the animal survived the marasmus. 


It is hardly necessary to explain the application of the well-known 
Murphy button. It suffices to say that anastomosis is accomplished by 
fastening a button half into each open intestinal end. The button is so 
constructed that, by snapping the halves together, the peritoneal surfaces 
of the circumference of the bowels are brought nicely together, and held 
until firm adhesions have bound the ends one to the other. The portions 
of bowel, which are jammed between the halves of the button, slough, thus 
freeing the instrument, which passes out per anum. 

Barbat 1 has paid attention to this technic and has published a detailed 
1 Barbat, J. H. Journal Am, Med. Asso., July 15, 1899. 


account of the method in which intestinal union takes place. He found 
that the muscularis and the mucosa were pushed completely out of the way 
when the button was made fast, so that the peritoneum and the submucosa 
were the only coats left within the bite of the button (Fig. 13.) It is 
difficult to understand how this could happen at once, although the lighter 
structure of the mucous membrane would probably soon succumb to the 
pressure exerted from the inside. It is also entirely possible that the muscu- 
lar fibers may be ruptured by the crushing of the instrument, thus permitting 
them to retract out of the grasp of the button. Barbat found that the perito- 
neum was so infolded that there was no uncovered surface at anypoint. The 
junction of the mesentery with the bowel uncovers a narrow area where the 
peritoneum is reflected to pass around the gut. Of course this point could 
not be covered by peritoneum under any circumstances. After a period 
of from one to three weeks, possibly much longer, the pressure of the button 
causes death and sloughing of the bowel edges within its clasp; thus the 
button is liberated, and is allowed to pass on. Sections taken at this time 
show that healing has occurred between the two peritoneal and the two sub- 
mucous layers. The mucosa is lacking over the line of approximation for 
a variable distance, usually not more than one-twentieth of an inch. The 
internal ulcer, therefore, is much narrower than that which results from 
other methods of anastomosis, and, although it might have some advantage 
in hastening the closure of the gap, yet it is evident that the reason for the 
condition is the extreme thinness of the line of union. The pushing aside 
of the muscular layers occasionally makes a narrow scar which, presum- 
ably, is not so firmly organized as if it had the additional strength of the 
muscular layers. Barbat states that regeneration of the mucous membrane 
begins four to six weeks later. If this observation has been correctly under- 
stood by me, the time required is from four to six times as long as that used 
by the suture in layers. 

The final result is a good one : each grows up to the scar, and attaches 
itself to the corresponding layer on the other side. In Barbat's specimens 
there was no reproduction of the muscularis mucosae (Figs. 14, 15, and 


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Mucous membrane 

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Longitudinal muscle 

Fig. 13.- — Repair Following the Use of the Murphy Button, Three Days. 
Shows mucous and muscularis pressed away at point of union. (Drawn from Barbat. 

Mucous membrane 

Muscularis mucosa? 

Circular muscle 

Longitudinal muscle 

p IG I4i — Repair Following the Use of the Murphy Button, Thirty-six Days. 
Firm healing of wound, no repair of muscularis mucosae (Drawn from Barbat.) 


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Longitudinal muscle 

Fig. 15. — Repair Following the Use of Murphy Button, Forty-two Days. 
Thin scar; mucosa attached to what originally was the external callus. Muscle-fibers separated. 
No repair of muscularis mucosas. (Drawn from Barbat.) 

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p IG . j 5, — Repair Following the Use of Murphy Button, Sixty-three Days. 
Mucous membrane intact; muscularis mucosa? not repaired; muscular tissue still separated by thick 

scar. (Drawn from Barbat.) 



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Fig. 17. — Section Across the Mass of Tissue Enclosed within the Loop of the Elastic 

Ligature, Five Days' Duration. 
Showing pressure necrosis due to the elastic ligature. (Murphy.) 


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Fig. i8. — Section at Right Angles to the Line of Union of the Stomach and Jejunum, Twelve 

Days' Duration. 

Showing an area of granulation tissue between the two viscera with the mucous membrane growing 
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Fig. 19. — Section at Right Angles to the Line of Union of the Stomach and Jejunum, Thirty 

Days' Duration. 
Showing fairly dense scar tissue completely covered by newly formed mucous membrane. A, Point 
at which submucosa of jejunum has been cut through; B, point at which submucosa of stomach has 
been cut through. (Murphy.) 


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the Edges of the Jejunum after the Elastic Ligature had Cut Out. (Murphy.) 


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The technic employed in forming an anastomosis by means of the elas- 
tic ligature is described in Chapter IV. In brief this technic consists in 
sewing together two adjoining hollow viscera with a single rubber suture, 
which penetrates into the lumina, and is placed in the long axes of the organs. 
When the suture is drawn tight and tied the walls of the bowel or of the 
stomach, which it includes, will be constricted. A continued constriction 
of the tissues grasped by the rubber will result in necrosis and sloughing, 
thus establishing a permanent artificial opening between the two organs. 
When the rubber ligature has cut itself free it drops into the intestine and 
passes on. As an additional precaution against leakage the peritoneal 
surfaces of the attached organs are sewed together around the rubber 
ligature, so that cutting through of the ligature will be devoid of danger. 

The repair of the intestine after the introduction of the elastic ligature 
may be stated as follows: 

The tissues included within the grasp of the ligature at once become 
anemic, and rapidly degenerate (Fig. 17). The muscle-fibers lose their 
staining properties and pressure necrosis with actual rupture of the muscle 
ensues. As the degeneration of the ligatured area progresses, a reaction 
is noted at the line of demarcation between the living and the dead tissues, 
characterized by an infiltration with leucocytes, small round cells, and 
serum. After four or five days the tissues have been changed into a slough, 
which becomes loosened, and is finally cast off. The conditions now 
present are exactly similar to those noted when the bowels are opened at 
once with a knife, and sewed together with two layers, — i. e., the edges of 
the opening are sealed and held in place by the plastic exudate during the 
process of healing of the internal ulcer. 

The covering of the internal ulcer with mucous membrane requires 
from seven to ten days. Fig. 18 shows the internal ulcer resulting from 
the cutting out of the ligature. In this case the mucous membrane may 
be seen closing over the ulcer twelve days after operation. It is of interest 
to compare this specimen with Fig. 6, which shows almost the same stage 
of healing twelve days after an anastomosis with the segmented ring. Fig. 1 9 
illustrates the end result where the granulation tissue at the line of anastomo- 


sis has been changed into a scar, and the suture-margin of the hole com- 
pletely covered with mucous membrane. 

During the act of the cutting out of the ligature it is possible for different 
points on the surface of the internal ulcer to be drawn together. If opposite 
points on the edges of the opening are held in apposition sufficiently long, 
adhesion will take place between the two raw surfaces, and the bridge thus 
formed will divide the stoma into two parts, neither of which will be large 
enough to serve the purpose of the operation. 

Fig. 20 is a section through a bridge of tissue caused in the manner just 
described. It is formed wholly of granulation tissue. 

The observations concerning repair following the use of the elastic 
ligature are drawn from a study of the specimens and drawings kindly 
loaned me for the purpose by Dr. F. T. Murphy. 1 

1 Murphy, F. T. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, January 28, 1904. 






To obtain the best results in gastrointestinal surgery, both soluble 
and insoluble suture material must be used. It is customary to employ 
soluble material for stitches which enter the bowel lumen, while the use 
of insoluble material is reserved for the outer seromuscular layer. No fixed 
rule, however, can be given, for surgeons have successfully used soluble 
sutures for the seromuscular, and insoluble for the penetrating stitches. 

The inner layer of stitches is only a temporary affair, the purposes of 
which are to approximate the cut edges accurately, to control bleeding, and 
to reinforce the outer layer. Therefore, there are no advantages in retain- 
ing these stitches after the first few days, when the adhesions and the granu- 
lation tissue have already bound the cut bowel ends tightly together. 

While the small details of the process of repair inside the bowel may 
be disregarded, so long as the serous coats are carefully brought together, 
it must be remembered that every stitch which enters the bowel lumen is 
subjected to a chance of infection from the organisms within the intestine. 

Theoretically, this is a serious danger; but, practically, very few acci- 
dents result from this cause. Leakage of a suture may usually be attrib- 
uted to one of three causes: 

(1) Inaccurate approximation of the peritoneum between the stitches. 

(2) Infection from escape of intestinal contents from the opened gut. 

(3) Bruising of the cut edges by rough handling during the operation. 
If these three errors of technic are avoided, the occasional penetration 

of the bowel lumen may be disregarded. 

On the whole, catgut fills most of the requirements for the inside stitches. 
Either plain or chromicized gut can be used, but the latter is preferable, 
merely because its greater strength allows it to be used in small sizes. 


Chromic gut will resist the disintegrating action of the gastric juice for from 
one to three weeks, and the portions of the stitch not thus exposed may- 
remain intact for several weeks longer. 

The whole theory and practice of intestinal surgery is founded upon 
the fact that two peritoneal surfaces, adjoining an intestinal wound, adhere 
to each other when held for a certain time in apposition. Twenty-four 
hours at least are necessary to seal the joint in this manner. To hold the 
tissues during this critical period, and until the process of repair is thoroughly 
established, suture material is required which is wholly unchangeable by lo- 
cal conditions. Although catgut is not absorbed in twenty-four hours, swell- 
ing from absorption of water, and subsequent loosening of the knot under the 
influence of distention or of active peristalsis of the bowels, is not uncommon. 

The best examples of insoluble material are silk and Pagenstecher's 
celloidin linen thread. Silk is still preferred by some for the seromuscular 
stitches ; but it makes by no means an ideal suture as it always acts badly 
in the neighborhood of an infected focus. The infection of any insoluble 
stitch is unfortunate, but the loose texture of silk offers a refuge to pyogenic 
cocci, so that the stitch itself becomes a source of contagion. 

In comparison with silk, celloidin linen thread has numerous advan- 
tages. The hard surface of thread thus prepared is resistant to the pene- 
tration of bacteria, and, once thoroughly sterilized by boiling, can be buried 
in the abdomen with relatively little danger. 

The ease experienced in handling celloidin thread is accounted for by 
the fact that it does not lose its hard consistency when soaked with water, 
and this prevents it from sticking to the fingers or to the sheets. Cutting 
out of a celloidin stitch is a rare occurence, for the irregularities of the 
individual strands are converted into a smooth surface by the celloidin. 
This is a very useful quality, though it applies more generally to the small 
sizes, for in the larger sizes the thread is somewhat rough. 

Celloidin thread acts well inside the stomach. The portions exposed 
to the action of the gastric juice will be disintegrated in about six weeks ; 
the remainder of the stitch will gradually loosen and fray out, until, at the 
end of six months, only the deepest portions will be left where they may 
remain indefinitely, encapsulated within the tissues. During the process 
of erosion by the gastric juice, salts may be deposited upon the thread, 

Fig. 2i. — Method or Holding Curved Needle, Point toward Operator. 

Fig. 22. — Method of Holding Curved Needle, Point away from Operator. 



forming concretions which may remain in place for weeks and attain a 
diameter of one-eighth inch. This deposit of salts may temporarily retard 
the further destruction of the thread, but it has no other effect upon the 
repair of the wound. 

After repeated boiling, celloidin thread becomes friable and splits 
longitudinally, but at least three sterilizations can be done with safety. The 
above observations are drawn from a series of animal experiments. 


A large, round-pointed, straight needle held in the fingers makes sewing 
very easy, although many surgeons prefer a curved needle and a needle- 
holder. The needle-holder, however, prevents the operator from knowing 
exactly how deep he is penetrating into the bowel wall because the delicacy of 
touch essential for this demands contact between fingers and needle. A 
straight needle will reach practically 
any point, but, if occasionally found " ""' 

to be awkward, the difficult Stitches FlG - ^--Milliner's Needle No. 3-Actual 

' Size. 

may be taken with a curved needle. 

Moynihan uses a needle with so full a curve that its manipulation is easy 

without a holder (Figs 23, 24). In sewing with a 
curved needle the point maybe held either towards or 
away from the operator, as circumstances require. 
When the point is towards the operator, the thumb 
is firmly fixed in the bend of the needle, while held 
in place by the counter-pressure of the first finger. 

Fig. 24. — Moynihan's r J 1 

Curved Needle, as Modi- The thread may be caught in the palm, by the 

EIED BY SCUDDER-ACTUAL ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ 

tional safeguard against slipping of the needle. If 

the point is away from the Operator, a reverse 

position is taken, the first two fingers being wedged into the curve of 

the needle, while the thumb presses firmly from the opposite side 

(Figs. 21, 22). 

On the whole, the straight needle offers such an increase in speed and 
accuracy of penetration that it is usually to be preferred. If a straight 
needle is chosen, a No. 3 milliner's, threaded with fine celloidin thread (No. 



i) is a serviceable combination. No. o chromic catgut threads easily into 
both the No. 3 milliner's and the Moynihan curved needles. 


There are several methods of tying square knots. One good method 
should be learned and used exclusively. A satisfactory system, described 
below, was shown me by Dr. C. B. Porter. 

(1) The long end of the tie is held in the palm of the left hand, the short 
end between the thumb and finger of the right hand (Fig. 25). 

Fig. 25. — The long end of the tie is held in the palm of the left hand, the short end between the thumb 

and finger of the right hand. 

(2) The short end, in the right hand, is passed half way around the hemo- 
static forceps, where it is caught by the forefinger of the left (Fig. 26). 

(3) The short end is brought around to the front again by a turn of the 
wrist, and passed over the long end (Fig. 27). 

(4) The short end is again grasped by the right to steady it while the 
two sides of the loop are held apart by the middle finger of the right and the 
forefinger of the left hands, the left forefinger catching the loop at the point 
of crossing of the two arms (Fig. 28). 

(5) The short end is carried through the loop from beneath upwards, 

Fig. 26. — The short end in the right hand is passed half way around the artery forceps, where it is 

caught by the forefinger of the left hand. 

*fu •' 

p 1G 27. Xhe short end is brought around to the front again by a turn of the wrist and passed over 

the long end. 


Fig. 28. — The short end (S) is again grasped by the right hand to steady it, while the two sides 
of the loop are held apart by the middle finger of the right hand and the forefinger of the left hand, 
the left forefinger catching the loop at the point of crossing of the two arms. 

Fig. 29. — The short end is carried through the loop from beneath upwards, using the thumb as a 
shuttle, and the short end again picked up by the right hand. 



using the thumb as a shuttle, and the short end again picked up by the 
right hand (Fig. 29). 

(6) The tissues are allowed to relax by removing the artery forceps, as 
the first half of the knot is tied over the index fingers. No pull should be 

Fig. 30. — The tissues are allowed to relax by removing the hemostatic forceps, and the first half 
of the knot is tied over the ends of the index fingers. No pull should be exerted upon the first half of 
the knot while the second half is being tied, else slipping will occur. 

Fig. 31. — The second half-knot is exactly the reverse of the first. The short end is carried around 
the left forefinger from right to left at a point where it will cross the long end of the tie, the palm being 
turned down at the same time. 

exerted upon the first half of the knot while the second half is being tied, 
else slipping will occur (Fig. 30). 

(7) The second half of the knot is exactly the reverse of the first. The 
short end is carried around the left forefinger from right to left at a point 

Fig. 32. — The loop is kept open by the right middle finger, and the left thumb quickly substituted 
for the left forefinger, since the latter is to act as the shuttle. The short end is, finally, carried through 
the loop by the left forefinger, from above downwards and caught by the right hand. 

FlG - 33- — The knot is tightened by pulling down with the left and up with the right hand. 



where it will cross the long end of the tie, the left palm being turned down- 
ward at the same time (Fig. 31). 

(8) The loop is kept open by the right middle finger and the left fore- 
finger, since the latter is to act as the' shuttle (Fig. 32). The short end is 
finally carried through the loop by the left forefinger from above down- 
ward and caught by the right hand. 

Fig. 34. — Richardson's One-hand Knoi. 

The tie has been passed around the snap, the 

thumb ready for the first tie. 

Fig. 35. — Richardson's One-hand Knot. 
Drawing the first turn taut. 

(9) The knot is tightened by pulling down with the left, and up with 
the right hand (Fig. 33). 

Richardson's One-hand Knot. 1 — This method is especially adapted 
for tying the first knot of a continuous suture. With it the end of the thread 
can be made fast with great rapidity. It requires rather skilful fingers to 
tie the knot every time without a miss, for the least slipping of the thread 

1 M. H. Richardson, not published. 

7 6 


will hinder the shuttle action of the fingers. It is common to see several 
attempts made in each loop before the whole knot is completed. The 
steps taken in tying Richardson's one-hand knot look confusing both on 
paper and in the cuts, but the manoeuvre itself is easily understood and 
simply done. When the knot is used to tie a bleeding vessel the short end of 

Fig. 36. — Richardson's One-hand Knot. 
Tying the second half of the knot. 

the ligature is passed around the snap from right to left in the same manner 
as described for the first step of the preceding knot, where the end is seized 
by the left hand. The tie is made with two motions : 

(1) The short end is carried over the long end, from left to right, the 
left thumb pushing the short end around and under the point of crossing 
from below upward until it appears between the two arms of the loop as 


they are held apart by the left index finger (Fig. 34). The first half-knot 
is then set, and, if a snap has been used, it is removed (Fig. 35). 

(2) The second half of the knot is the reverse of the first. The short 
end is drawn across the long end from right to left and carried under the 
point of crossing, using the thumb as a shuttle and the forefinger to hold 
apart the loop, just as was done in the first step (Fig. 36). This technic will 
produce a square knot every time if the short end is pointed to the right in 

Fig. 37. — Seamstress Knot, First Step. 
Left hand draws both ends of stitch to left, thus forming a loop. Needle enters loop from below upward 

and to right. 

the first half, and to the left in the second half. These steps may be re- 
versed in order if desired. 

Seamstress Knot. — This knot is used by Dr. Oviatt, of Wisconsin, 
through whom it came to the author's attention. Its rapidity and accuracy 
are gained by substituting the needle for the finger in carrying the end of the 
tie through the loop. It is assumed here that the stitch has been taken in a 
direction away from the surgeon, thus leaving the short end on the proximal 
and the long end on the distal side of the wound. 

(1) The long end with the needle is first drawn back across the wound 

Fig. 38. — Seamstress Knot, Second Step. 
First half of knot tied as follows: Short end pulled away from operator with left hand; long, or needle 

end, drawn toward operator with right. 

Fig. 39. — Seamstress Knot, Third Step. 
Last half of knot. The short thread in left hand is twisted to right to form a loop. Needle enters 
loop from above to right. The second half of knot is tied by pulling away with long or needle end, 
and toward operator with short end. 



toward the operator. The point of crossing of the two ends is seized be- 
tween the left thumb and forefinger and held up while the needle is pushed 
under the arch made by the thread from left to right (Fig. 37). 

(2) The first half of the knot is set by pulling downward on the long 
or needle end with the right hand, and upward with the short end in the 
left hand (Fig. 38). 

(3) To tie the second half of the knot the short end in the left hand is 
carried back across the wound toward the surgeon 

and slightly twisted between the fingers so that a 
good loop is furnished. Through this loop the 
needle passes from left to right (Fig. 39) . The knot 
is set by pulling upward on the long end in the right 
and downward on the short end in the left hand. 
Surgeon's knot is made in exactly the same 
manner as other square knots are made, except 
that two turns are taken instead of one in the first 
half (Fig. 40). It is employed to prevent the slip- 
ping of the first half while the second half of the 
knot is being tied. This is a dangerous knot to use 
in intestinal work because the double turn in the 
first half of the knot prevents the knot from slip- 
ping easily in either direction, thus adding an obstacle to setting the 
knot which is not compensated by its other qualities. So much traction is 
exerted upon the stitch holes in tying the surgeon's knot that the stitch 
frequently cuts out during the manoeuvre. 

Fig. 40. — A Surgeon's Knot 
as it is Usually Tied. 

Note that first half of knot 
has two turns, while the second 
half has but one. 


The sutures employed for intestinal anastomosis may be divided into 
three classes : 

(1) Those that aim to approximate the peritoneal coats and penetrate 
only through the muscularis mucosae (seromuscular) : 

(1) The Cushing right-angle continuous. 

(2) The Lembert continuous, [interrupted]. 

(3) The mattress (Halsted), (Gould). 

(4) The Purse-string. 



(2) Those that aim to approximate the cut edges without, necessarially, 
bringing together the peritoneal coats. 

(1) The through-and-through continuous, or glover's. 

(2) The buttonhole (Heister). 

(3) Those that penetrate all coats and approximate the peritoneum, — 
i. e., penetrating mattress : 

(1) Maunsell's mesenteric stitch. 

(2) Connell's mattress anastomosis. 

(3) Seromuscular-penetrating mattress, (Jobert). 

The Seromuscular Stitch. — The 
muscularis mucosae is the only portion 
of the bowel wall that offers a firm 
anchorage for a stitch, and the 
recognition of this tough elastic layer 
is essential to the security of the 
joint. A very good way to become 
familiar with the peculiar resistance 
offered to the needle, by the mus- 
cularis mucosae, is by practising upon 
a piece of stretched rubber dam; 

the sensations of resistance and penetration are practically identical. 

The needle enters the bowel wall at a very obtuse angle (Fig. 41), until 

Fig. 41. — The Seromuscular Stitch. 

Shows proper angle and depth of penetra^ 

tion of seromuscular stitch. 

Fig. 42. — The Seromuscular Stitch. 
Shows method of lifting up fold of bowel before pushing the needle completely through. 

it just pierces the muscularis mucosae, when the point is firmly lifted, 
and with it the fold of bowel wall which it has impaled. The needle is 


then pushed through the opposite side of the fold (Fig. 42) and the thread 
drawn tight. An accurate approximation of the serous surfaces is assisted 
by always picking up folds of equal length. The needle should never be 
pushed through until the fold is lifted on the needle, as just described. 

Fig. 43. — Cushing Right -angle Continuous Stitch. 
The first layer of through-and -through stitches has been placed. Note method of introducing the first 

stitch and knot of the Cushing suture. 

Fig. 44. — Cushing Right -angle Continuous Stitch. 
Note wave-like suture line. Stitch half completed. 

The Cushing Right-angle Continuous Stitch. 1 — To begin this stitch, 
the needle pierces the bowel parallel to the wound, but in a direction opposite 
to that of the intended suture (Fig. 43), thence crossing the wound at a 

1 Cushing, H. W. Med. and Surg. Reports, Boston City Hospital, 1889 



right angle it pierces the bowel again exactly opposite, and parallel to the first 
half of the stitch, this time in the direction of the intended suture. This places 
the knot conveniently for continuing the suture. The subsequent stitches 
are taken parallel with the wound, about one-eighth inch apart. The 

Fig. 45. — Cushing Right-angle Continuous Stitch. 

Note method of depressing the first layer of stitches with needle. To tighten the stitch the thread is 

drawn out exactly in the direction of the last stitch taken, parallel to the wound. 

Fig. 46. — Cushing Right -angle Continuous Stitch. 
Suture completed. Note method of tying last knot by drawing tight both arms of loop with fingers. 

thread crosses the wound at right angles, and, leaving about one-eighth 
inch margin from the cut edge, again enters the peritoneum parallel to the 
wound, at a point opposite the hole of exit of the last stitch (Fig. 44). After 


each stitch the thread should be drawn tight, and, to prevent cutting out, 
the pull should be made parallel to the wound, exactly in the direction of 
the last stitch taken. In order to bring the serous surfaces closely together 
when the stitch is tightened, the first layer of through-and-through sutures 
should be pushed down with the needle while the thread is pulled with the 
other hand (Fig. 45). When this continuous stitch has been properly 
placed and tightened, the thread, which is completely buried by the invag- 
inated serous surfaces, travels parallel to the wound in nearly a straight 
line, and a wave-like suture line results which is caused by the dovetailing 
of the individual needle bites. 

After the last stitch has been placed the thread is picked up at the point 
of its last crossing, between the exit of the next to the last and the entrance 
of the last stitch. The thread is pulled out here in a loop, long enough for 
convenient tying, and knotted with the single thread which has just emerged 
from the hole of exit of the last stitch. Both arms of the loop must be 
separately pulled tight to set the knot (Fig. 46). 

The Lembert Stitch 1 is used both for continuous and for interrupted 

Fig. 47. — The Lembert Stitch. 
The interrupted stitch is shown on the left, the continuous stitch on the right. The apparent irregu- 
larity in the continuous stitch is due to its not yet having been pulled tight. 

sutures. The stitches are placed at a right angle to the line of the wound, 
about one-eighth inch from the cut peritoneal edge (Fig. 47), and when 
tied, roll in the edges, and perfectly approximate the serous surfaces. If 
the suture is to be a continuous one" the manoeuvres are exactly the 

1 Lembert. Repertoire Generate d'Anatomie et de Physiologie Pathologique, T. u, p. 3, 1826. 

2 Dupuytren, Diffenbach, Lehrbuch der Chirurgie, Bd. m, S. 458. 



same as observed for the interrupted stitch, although, instead of tying 
separately, all the stitches are connected with each other. After placing 
the first stitch, the thread is carried diagonally across the wound to the 
new stitch, which enters the bowel a short distance further along, parallel 
with the first. The last knot is tied in the same manner as done in the 
right-angle continuous stitch of dishing. Figs. 48 and 49 show the stitches 
in cross section. 

Fig. 48. — Lesibeet Interrupted Stitch, with Fig. 49. — Leubert Continuous Stitch 

Cross Section. with Cross Section. 

Fig. 50. — Halsted Mattress Stitch. 
A drawn to A. 

The Mattress Stitch.— Halsted 1 has described an interrupted mat- 
tress stitch for approximating the serous coats (Fig. 50). This suture 
consists of two parallel Lembert stitches connected on one side of the wound 
by a loop, leaving the two ends free on the opposite side. When these ends 
are tied, the lips of the wound are drawn together and a strong, accurate 
joint thus obtained. This stitch has the disadvantage of not rolling in the 
peritoneum, as well as limiting the extent to which the inversion of the cut 
edge may be carried. 

1 Halsted, W. S. Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, January 1891. 


Author's 4 reversed mattress stitch is a modification of the Halsted 
mattress. The aim of this stitch is actually to obtain the inverting effect of 
the Lembert stitch combined with the added strength of the mattress stitch. 
This result is obtained by reversing the loop so that it lies close to the wound. 

Fig. 51. — Author's Mattress Stitch. 
Note that the loop is reversed. This results in the rolling in of the peritoneum on the side of the 

loop — B drawn to A. 

The stitch can be remembered by recalling the fact that the first two bites are 
taken towards the wound, the second two bites away from the wound (Fig. 51). 

Figs. 52 and 53 are cross sections which show well the results 
given by the two mattress stitches. 

The reversed mattress stitch has one 
of its chief uses in burying the stump of an 
appendix. The preliminary steps of the 
operation are not of importance here. 
The meso-appendix is ligated in the usual 
way, thus freeing the appendix so that it 
can be held forward. A reversed mat- 
tress stitch is introduced on the caecum, 
the arms of the stitch being placed so that 
the base of the appendix lies between 

them. A strip of gauze should be passed about the appendix to protect 
the mattress stitch from being infected while the resection is being done. 
After cleaning the stump of the appendix, the ends of the mattress stitch 
are drawn tight and tied, and the stump of the appendix disappears with- 
out tucking (Figs. 54 and 55). 

1 Gould, A. H. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, December 29, 1904. 

Fig. 52. — Halsted Mattress Stitch, with 
Cross Section. 



The Purse-string. — This suture is useful in several situations: (i) 
In closing the end of a cut intestine to form a blind sac ; (2) as a preliminary 

step to the introduction of 
mechanical devices ; (3) when- 
ever it is necessary to invaginate 
an isolated portion of the peri- 
toneum, — e. g., to close a de- 
nuded area, or to bury the 
stump of an appendix. It is 
used both in end-to-end and 
in lateral anastomoses. 

Two methods are quite 
generally in use for applying 
the purse-string, which differ from each other in their relation to the cut 
edges of the opening which they are to close : 

Fig. 53. — Author's Mattress Stitch, with Cross 


Figs. 54, 55. — Use of Reversed Mattress Stitch for Burying Stump of Appendix. 

(1) The first method 1 is shown in outline and in cross section, respect- 
ively, by Figs. 56 and 57. It consists of a series of interrupted seromuscular 

1 Doyen. Chirurgen Congress Verhandl., 1898, p. 200. 


Fig. 56. — The Purse-string Suture. 
A series of interrupted stitches placed in continu- 
ity. It circles the bowel' about one-eighth inch from 
the cut edge. 

stitches placed in continuity. This suture, though located about one- 
eighth inch from the cut edge of the gut, does not cross the edge, as is done by 
the next method. For this reason 
it is possible to place the stitch 
before opening the bowel, — a de- 
cided advantage in providing 
against sepsis. The needle en- 
ters the anti-mesenteric border of 
the bowel and circles the gut, or, 
in lateral anastomosis, the pro- 
posed line of incision, with fre- 
quent bites. When it reaches the 
mesenteric border, it crosses un- 
der the mesenteric attachment, 
appearing on the other side, after 
which it passes up to the point of 
beginning on the anti-mesenteric 
edge. A half-knot is tied in the two ends in order to allow the suture 
to be made fast as soon as possible after opening the intestine. Fig. 58 
illustrates, somewhat diagrammatically, the use of the purse-string for 

lateral anastomosis 1 . The dotted 
line which appears on the cut edges 
of the incision indicates the path of 
the stitch through the tissues; it is, 
in fact, exactly like other seromus- 
cular stitches . In placing the purse- 
string for lateral anastomosis it 
should be held in mind that the in- 
cision into the side of the intestine 
will be a straight line, so that the 
purse-string must not inclose a cir- 
cular area, but must be made in 
two halves, each consisting of several bites forming a straight line parallel 
to the future incision. These halves are connected at one end by a loop, 

Fig. 57. — Purse-string Stitch, Cross Section. 

1 Murphy, J. B. New York Medical Record, Vol. xlii, 1892, December 10, p. 667. 



as shown in Fig. 58, and some care will be needed to avoid cutting the 
thread when the opening is made. 

Fig. 58. — Purse-string Suture for Lateral Anastomosis. 
Dotted lines on cut edge show depth of penetration of stitches; not an actual cross section. 

Fig. 59. — Murphy's Purse-string Suture, U SED for Button. 

A continuous suture around the cut edge of the bowel, including the mesentery. (Redrawn from 


(2) The second method is used by Murphy 2 in the introduction of his 
button. In this instance the suture begins also at the anti-mesenteric'bor- 

2 Murphy, J. B. Ibid., p. 672. 


der, but is placed after the bowel has been opened. It pierces directly 
through all the bowel coats and travels around the cut edges over and over, 
from without inwards. When the mesenteric attachment is reached the 
stitch skips diagonally across the triangular section of mesenteric fat that 
marks the junction of the bowel with its mesentery, and picks up a portion 
of the mesentery at that point. The suture finally completes the circuit 
of the second half of the circumference, ending at the free border, beside 
the hrst hole of entrance of the needle (Fig. 59). This method of placing 
a purse-string is very effective mechanically, but the constant handling of 
the open bowel soils the fingers and adds unnecessarily to the danger of 

The Through- and -through Continuous Suture (Glover's) 1 .— 
Formerly it was considered necessary to 
sew the bowels together by layers before 
approximating the serous surfaces. By 
this arrangement, one layer of stitches was 
used for the mucous membrane and another 
for the muscle, and a third for the peri- 
toneum. As shown in the study of the 
process of repair, the healing of the cut 
edges forming the internal ulcer is not ^ 

' Pig. 00. — Glover's Continuous Stitch, 

accelerated by an inner layer of stitches, with Cross Section. 

but rather retarded owing to the necessity 

of absorbing these stitches before the ends can wholly heal over. While 
it is not necessary to sew each layer separately, an inner layer of stitches 
has sufficient advantages to offset this slight delay in the process of repair. 
As mentioned later in considering the end-to-end anastomosis, they serve 
to control hemorrhage from the cut edges, and reinforce the seromuscular 
stitches while the exudation is taking place which is to seal the joint. 

The glover's is a continuous over-and-over suture. The stitch may 
start from the inside, or from the outside, according to circumstances; but 
its chief feature lies in its penetration of all the coats, including the peritoneal. 
It passes from without inwards, on one side, and from within outwards on 
the other side (Fig. 60). After penetrating both edges at a right angle, it 

1 Salicetto, Guglielmo di. Vulnus Intestini, sutura pellionum, Chirurgia, Venet., 1470, p. 376. 



crosses diagonally over the cut edges and again penetrates the opposite 
edge. In piercing the bowel wall, the needle should always be placed at a 
right angle both to the long axis and to the cut edge of the bowel. 

The Buttonhole Suture (Heister 1 ). — This is a modification of the 

Fio. 61. — The Buttonhole Stitch, with Cross Section. 

glover's stitch and is used to supply tlie place of the latter. The needle 
penetrates the bowel edges exactly as in the glover's; but, before crossing, 
a half-hitch is taken in the loop. This stitch is useful to approximate 
wounds where the tissues cannot relax, such as the skin, where hemorrhage 

Fig. 62. — Buttonhole Stitch Doubled. (W. J. Mayo.) 

is not important ; but it is unreliable as an inner suture for intestinal wounds 
(unless reinforced, as done by W. J. Mayo). It converts the continuous 
stitch into a series of interrupted stitches, none of which are tied, so that 
the hemorrhage from the spaces between loops is not controlled. If the 

1 Heister, Lorenz. Chirurgie, Nurnberg, 1763, Chapter VI. 


stitch is applied while clamps are in place, there is nothing to prevent the 
flexible intestinal walls from relaxing when the clamps are removed, thus 
loosening the whole stitch. If the stitch is placed without clamps, to be 
effective it must be drawn so tight that the cut edges are drawn into irregu- 
lar puckerings which render difficult the placing of the seromuscular stitch 
(Fig. 61). 

The Through-and-through Mattress Suture (Connelly is used for 
end-to-end and for lateral anastomosis. This stitch starts inside the lumen 
of one bowel, about one-eighth inch from the cut edge. It pierces all the 
bowel coats, and, crossing outside the wound, at a right angle, pierces all 
the coats of the second cut bowel from without inward, at a spot opposite 
and symmetrical to the needle hole in the first cut edge, thus entering the 
second bowel lumen. The needle now turns and escapes from the 
bowel by again piercing all lay- 
ers, from within outward, about 
one-eighth inch to one side of the 
hole where it entered the lumen. 
It then crosses the bowel edges 
parallel to the first half of the stitch, 
and finally penetrating all coats Fig. 6 3 .-penetrating mattress Stitch, cross 

Section of One-hale of Stitch. 

of the first bowel, reenters the 

lumen. The two ends are tied, as they lie side by side, on the same 
lip of the wound, and the serous surfaces thus brought into firm 
apposition. A complete anastomosis may be made in this manner 
which does not require further reinforcing. These stitches must be 
placed close together because there is nothing to control the bleeding from 
the intervening cut edge (Fig. 63). 

The Mattress Mesenteric Stitch (Maunsell). 2 — The mattress stitch 
has its most useful application in establishing a firm joint at the mesenteric 
border. The stitch is placed exactly in the same manner as the one last 
described. Since the mesenteric attachment is immediately below the 
point where the needle will emerge in piercing all coats, the needle enters 

1 Connell, M. E. Med. Record, 1892, Vol. xm, p. 335. Connell, F. G. Philadelphia 
Monthly Med. Journal, Vol. 1, 1899. 

2 Maunsell. Lancet, 1892, Vol. 11, p. 473; American Jour. Med. Sci., March, 1892. 

9 2 


the triangular mesenteric space for about one-eighth inch (Fig. 64), 
then, turning to one side, pierces the peritoneum. Figs. 65 and 66 show 
the space for the mesenteric attachment of the intestine. In entering 
the second bowel, the reverse plan is necessary, the needle first piercing the 
triangular space of the mesenteric attachment before it enters the bowel. 
Once inside, the needle turns and passes out again, repeating the steps, and 
reenters the first bowel, where it is tied. This stitch should be employed 
in every form of end-to-end anastomosis, except the Murphy button. 

Fig. 64. — Maunsell's Mattress Mesenteric Stitch. 

The Seromuscular Penetrating Mattress ( Jober^-Senn 2 ) . — In 
closing small perforating wounds of the intestine, it is difficult to control 
hemorrhage, and approximate the peritoneum with the same stitch. Jobert 
has described a stitch which serves this purpose with success. It is a 
combination of the perforating mattress with the seromuscular stitch. The 
stitch begins on one lip of the wound, like the Lembert, reaching down 
only into the muscularis mucosae. It then crosses the hole and penetrates 

1 Jobert. Archiv. geneYales de Medicine, 1824. 
Senn. Intestinal Surgery, 1889, p. 168. 

3 "' 

CT 1 


-"c. c '^^ 



all coats of the opposite lip, entering the bowel lumen. From this point 
the stitch again escapes from the bowel, through all coats, ending as a 
Lembert, on the first lip of the wound (Fig. 67). Upon tying this stitch the 
edges of the wound are rolled in and the bleeding stopped by compression. 
Fig. 68 shows the stitch in cross section. 

It is generally felt by surgeons that the presence of knots on the per- 
itoneal surface of the intestine is a frequent cause of adhesions. This 
circumstance has been emphasized in the writings of Halsted and of Con- 

Fig. 67. — Seromuscular Penetrating Mattress. 
Cross section, showing stitch loosely introduced. 

nell, and the suggestion made that the outside knots be done away with 
as far as possible. It is difficult, however, to show exactly how much 
irritation is caused by the knots, because the bruising of the peritoneum 
near the suture may lead, of itself, to the formation of adhesions. As far 
as personal experimental work goes, there seems to be more danger of 
adhesion formation from rough handling of the peritoneum than from 
outside knots. 

The comparative value of the interrupted and the continuous stitches 
is another mooted question. For the interrupted stitch it may be said that 
it never can constrict the lumen, because each stitch pulls parallel to the 


long axis of the bowel. An excessive edge may, however, be turned in by 
successive layers of stitches and thus narrow the intestine ; but this accident 
can also occur after use of a continuous stitch. The giving way of a single 
stitch during the early hours of healing is not necessarily disastrous if two 
layers of sutures are employed, as the remainder of the circumference is 
unaffected by the giving way of one stitch, and the inner layer will probably 
protect the small gap left by the deficient stitch. If the seromuscular 
stitches are properly placed so as to include the muscularis mucosae, and 
are made as narrow as compatible with good anchorage, the danger of slip- 

Fig. 68. — Seromuscular Penetrating Mattress. 
Showing stitch pulled tight. 

ping will be reduced to a minimum. Leakage of intestinal contents between 
interrupted stitches is not to be anticipated, for the first step of the process 
of repair is the rapid distention of the inturned edges with edema and with 
blood. The swollen edges at once plug all openings, and the greater the 
pressure within the intestine, the more effective is this valve action of the 
swollen edges. After twenty-four hours enough exudate has oozed into the 
tissues about the joint to glue together the peritoneal surfaces and thus 
remove further danger of leakage. 

Horsley 1 feels certain that a continuous stitch is superior to a series of 

1 Horsley, J. S. Annals of Surgery, 1903, p. 741. 


interrupted stitches, because, by acting as a splint, it supports the joint, 
while at the same time it completely seals in the line of union. It is true 
that rest is essential to repair, and it is reasonable to suppose that the imme- 
diate approximation obtained with a continuous stitch is more perfect and 
tight than that given by interrupted stitches. This view, however, loses its 
importance when a comparison is made between joints done, the one with 
a continuous, the other with two layers of stitches. The inner stitch is 
always a continuous one, and provides the splint action accredited to the 
continuous stitch, whatever type of outside stitch is employed. A fair dis- 
tinction might be made between the interrupted mattress anastomosis of Con- 
nell and one of the methods which employs a single continuous seromuscular 
stitch. It will be recalled that the mattress anastomosis is accomplished 
entirely by means of interrupted mattress stitches which penetrate all the 
bowel coats. It is the aim of the method to place the stitches very near to 
the cut edges, so that the edges will be inverted as little as possible. Theo- 
retically there would be danger of leakage between the stitches, but prac- 
tically it has proved a very safe and strong method. Although I have no 
specimens to show it, there is every reason to believe that the cut edges 
sweU up and block the interstices between the stitches in the same way that 
they were observed to act with the suture in two layers, and with one layer 
with the segmented ring. Horsley's experiments, to show that adhesion 
between serous surfaces does not necessarially follow their continuous and 
close apposition, did not take into account the effect of the cut edges in 
pouring out serum into all parts of the joint. It was shown in the ring 
series that the inflammatory reaction began at the cut edges at once. As a 
matter of fact, it is the accepted opinion that the surgeon should never 
subject his stitches to the dangers of distention and increased peristalsis. 
This is avoided by dividing the operation into two stages whenever disten- 
tion is found. The usual routine is to resect and drain at the first sitting, 
followed by suture several days later, after the intestines have been given a 
sufficient rest. It is probably just as dangerous to submit a continuous 
suture to the test of distention and of violent peristalsis as it is the suture 
in two layers, the outer of which is interrupted. 

For the continuous stitch it may be said that it is more rapid than the 
interrupted method, need never be drawn into a purse-string, if occasionally 


interrupted with knots, and leaves a smooth surface at the outside joint 
angle. The ultimate scar formation is supposedly less dangerous after the 
interrupted suture; but this question is so involved with the width of the 
inturned edge that no general statement can be made. Both continuous 
and interrupted stitches are perfectly efficient if correctly placed, and 
can be substituted for each other to fit the circumstances. 


Intestinal Clamps. — There are several methods of controlling leakage 
of contents during the suture of an opened viscus. For intestinal operations 
it was formerly found sufficient for the assistant to pinch the bowel with the 
fingers, but this method removed the assistant from further participation 
in the operation, while demanding of him the utmost care to avoid relaxation 
of the fingers, which the fatiguing nature of the position made it difficult 
to carry out. 

The next step in the evolution of the technic of leakage-control was the 
constriction of the gut lumen by means of a silk tie, or a piece of gauze. 
This method, although freeing the hands of the assistant, is inferior to 
simple finger-compression since it requires the perforation of the mesentery 
at its junction with the bowel. The terminal branches of the third vascular 
arch, which is nearest the intestine, travel at a right angle to the long axis 
of the bowel (Fig. 79), and, theoretically, might not be injured by placing 
a ligature about the bowel if the mesenteric incision avoided these vessels. 
On the contrary, the close relation of these terminal branches to each other 
makes it really difficult to avoid them, especially if the mesentery be opaque 
with fat. Just how much damage is done by wounding the small vessels 
placed at the mesenteric border would be hard to determine, but, on general 
principles, it is safer to preserve the entire blood supply of an organ when 

The adaptation of clamps has proved of great value to gastro-intestinal 
surgery, and has superseded both of the crude measures just mentioned. 
It is one of the rare situations in which special instruments are serviceable 
in intestinal work. 

The simplest method of compressing the intestines is by means of the 
straight circumcision clamp (Fig. 69). A clamp similar to this has been 


devised by Murphy, the blades of which are bent at a right angle to the 
spring handle. This adds very little to the value of the instrument, while, 
on the contrary, the circumcision clamps are much more readily obtained. 
As expedients to prevent the tissues from slipping through the blades, the 
latter are furnished with fenestras and with teeth. These may prove useful 
additions to the plain blade in the operation of circumcision, but they have 
no place in intestinal work, because the circumcision clamp is only used 
in end-to-end sutures of the intestines where the clamp is placed so far 
from the cut edges as to render the 

question of slipping of no impor- feaa««^<!!* ..^/ jfeshaifr 
tance. However, the clamps about Fiq 69 _ Steaight C ircumc ISI on Clamp 
to be described are used both for for Intestine. 

• , ,• 1 1 r , ■ ,■ Length of blade, 2I inches; width of blade 

intestinal and for gastric operations, |inch . length of handle , 3 inches . 

where a tight grasp of the fold is 

essential. The jaws of all clamps which are used merely to compress the 
intestine or the stomach should be covered with rubber tubing in order to 
interpose a cushion between the intestine and the hard surface of the 
instrument. Attention should be called to the proper size of tubing to be 
chosen for this work, because in lateral anastomosis, and in all stomach 
operations, the size of the rubber tubing is the key to the success of the 
clamp. Generally speaking, if the tubing is of a caliber which admits its 
being easily slipped over the blade of the clamp, no compression which it is 

safe to apply to the included intestine or stomach 

ns^ffiassa^ssssaa will prevent the tubing from rotating around the 

„, TT1!TM „ blade, under the influence of the drag of the 

Fig. 70. — Rubber Tubing ' 

for intestinal and Small tissues. It seems obvious that the addition of 
stomach clamps. - ^ windows to prevent the rubber 

Diameter about T \ inch. 1 

from turning is a wrong principle. The tubing 
should be so small that it requires stretching to draw it over the blade. 
The lubrication of the rubber with lysol will make the procedure compar- 
atively easy. In the author's clamps, described later, there are two 
narrow grooves which run lengthwise on the inside of the blades, but it is 
probable that their presence is of no additional value to the clamp. Fig. 70 
shows the correct size of tubing for gastroenterostomy and for intestinal 



For clamping the intestine any of the smaller stomach clamps are 
serviceable. Krause's clamp is very good on account of the full curve of 
the blade which allows the handle to be tucked away from the field of 
operation. This clamp is described below. In the days when intestinal 
clamps were not boiled as a routine in all abdominal 
layouts various contrivances came into vogue as make- 
shifts in emergencies. Although it would seem that the 
assistant's fingers are superior in every way to instruments 
which penetrate the mesentery, yet the methods of Pean 
and of Maylard are so ingenious that drawings have 
been made from Binnie's Surgery to illustrate their 
technic. Figs. 71 and 72 are self-explanatory. 

Gastric Clamps. — For gastroenterostomy and all 
stomach operations except the larger resections, a small 
clamp is desirable. Fig. 73 shows Krause's clamp which 
has been previously mentioned. The special character- 
istics of this clamp are its thin, flat blades, the curve of 
which is much fuller than that of the other small clamps. 
It is claimed that in difficult operations upon the pylorus 
and the first portion of the duodenum the bend in the 
blades is very useful as an aid in getting a good bite of 
the intestine when it is necessary to work in a deep hole. 
Figs. 74 and 76 illustrate the author's modification of 
the Doyen clamp. It is a slight instrument with nar- 
rower, lfess fully curved blades than the Krause clamp, 
while the handles are longer. This clamp was designed 
for use in gastroenterostomy. The actual dimensions of 
this and all other clamps included in this description are 
given with the cuts. 

There are occasional cases where a straight clamp 
is of use. Fig. 75 represents Scudder's straight clamp. The blades are 
toothed and fenestrated. This clamp and Moynihan's straight clamp 
resemble each other in that both have straight fenestrated blades of about 
the same length. 

In extensive resections of the stomach long, heavy clamps are re- 

Fig. 71. — May- 
lard's Method of 
Using Forceps for 
Intestinal Clamps. 
(Drawn from Bin- 

Fig. 72. — Pean's Method of Using Hemostatic Forceps and Rubber Tube in Place of 

Clamp. (Drawn from Binnie.) 

,r o\ 




Fig. 73. — Kratjse's Stomach Clamp. 
Length of blade, five inches; width of blade, \ inch; curve of blade, J inch; length of handle, 4J 


Fig. 74. — Author's Stomach Clamp. 
Two views. Length of blade, 5 J inches; width of blade, \ inch; curve of blade, \ inch; length of 

handle, 4! inches. 

Fig. 75. — Sctjdder's Straight Stomach Clamp. 
Length of blade, 5^ inches; width of blade, \ inch; length of handle, 4J inches. 



quired. Harrington has devised two clamps, one with curved, the other 
with straight blades, which he uses in all stomach operations. The blades, 
made without teeth or corrugations, are longer and heavier than the usual 

Fig. 76. — Author's Stomach Clamp. 
Compare in size with Figs. 77, 78. 

gastroenterostomy clamps. This clamp is specially adapted for resections 
of the middle portion of the stomach. Fig. 77 is a cut of Harrington's 

Fig. 77. — Harrington's Straight Stomach Clamp. 

Length of blade, 8 inches; width of blade, j\- inch; length of handle, 4! inches. 

Fig. 78. — Kocher's Crushing Clamp. 

Length of blade, 7} inches; width of blade, f inch ; curve of blade, J inch ; length of handle, 6g inches. 

straight clamp which is used in Figs. 180 and 181 in the technic of resect- 
ing the middle portion of the stomach. 

One of the very valuable stomach clamps is Kocher's so-called crush- 
ing clamp (Fig. 78). The blades of this clamp are very heavy and strong, 


while their curve is pronounced. The ends of the blades can be fastened 
by a small lever, thus preventing the end of the blades from spreading, as 
they are tightened on the fold of stomach. Kocher, in his well-known 
technic, uses his instrument to crush the stomach before resecting, but the 
clamp is also very reliable for pylorectomy when crushing is not desired. 
When employed for crushing, the blades are bare, but for merely obtaining 
a secure grasp of the tissues a tight-fitting rubber cover is applied. (The 
clamps used for these illustrations were made by Codman & Shurtleff, of 


The general relationship of anatomy to the various pathological proc- 
esses which are found within the abdomen is not considered here. There 
are, however, three anatomical subjects which bear directly upon the tech- 
nical descriptions to be given later. These subjects are the following: 

(i) The blood supply of the intestine. 

(2) The lymphatics of the intestine. 

(3) Intestinal localization. 


The blood supply of the intestines is derived from the superior 
mesenteric and from the inferior mesenteric arteries. The superior mesen- 
teric artery supplies the whole length of the small intestine, except the first 
part of the duodenum, which is supplied by the pyloric and the pancreatico- 
duodenal branches of the hepatic. The superior mesenteric also supplies 
the cecum, the ascending, and the transverse colon. The descending 
colon and the sigmoid flexure, as well as the greater part of the rectum, 
are supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. 

The Blood Supply of the Small Intestine. — The intestinal arteries 
which arise from the main trunk of the superior mesenteric "consist of two 
groups : the larger number from ten to twelve branches, and arise from the 
large primary arch of the superior mesenteric artery; the smaller, from 
eight to twelve in number, arise from the terminal portion of the superior 
mesenteric. These branches pass between the two layers of the mesentery, 
the large branches traversing a distance of 7-8 cm., the small 3-5 cm., after 
which they bifurcate. The branches arising from the bifurcation anasto- 
mose with the neighboring intestinal arteries, and form, in this manner, a 
first series of arches, the convexity of which is turned toward the intestine. 
From these arches, new branches arise, to the number of forty or fifty, 
which run parallel to each other until they bifurcate. The branches, 


Fig. 79. — The Blood-vessels of the Mesentery of the Small Intestine. 
Drawn from an actual dissection. One layer of the mesentery has been removed, exposing the 
vessels. The layer of mesentery remaining forms the background for the vessels. Note the anasto- 
mosis of the branches of the superior mesenteric artery, to form arches. In this specimen there are 
three series of arches. The vasa recta arise at a distance from the intestinal border, alternating as to 
the side of the intestine which they supply. 



arising from the bifurcation, anastomose in their turn, thus resulting in a 
second series of arches placed nearer to the mesenteric border of the intes- 
tine. The small vessels which take their origin from the second series of 
arches anastomose again to form a third series of arches, from which arise 
the terminal branches, which are distributed to the walls of the intestine" 
(Fig. 79). (Poirier and Charpy. 1 ) 

As a continuation of the above statements by Poirier and Charpy the 
following is quoted from the report of Monks/ who has examined a large 
number of specimens for the purpose of making clear the vascular anatomy 
of the mesentery of the small intestine. Previous work has been done on 
this subject by Professor Dwight, 3 of Harvard : 

"Opposite the upper part of the bowel the mesenteric vessels are dis- 
tinctly larger than opposite any other part of it. These vessels grow smaller 
and smaller as we pass downwards until the lower third of the gut is reached, 
where they remain about the same size as far as the ileocecal valve. The 
arrangement of the mesenteric vessels has some features which intimately 
concern the subject in hand (intestinal localization), and which I shall 
describe with some detail. Diagrammatically speaking, the main branches 
of the superior mesenteric artery unite with each other by means of loops 
which are called, for convenience, ' primary loops ;' in some parts of the tube, 
'secondary loops;' and even occasionally 'tertiary loops' are superimposed 
upon these. From these loops little straight vessels — the vasa recta already 
referred to — run to the bowel,, upon which they ramify, alternating, as a 
rule, as to the side of the intestine which they supply. The mesenteric 
veins are arranged in a manner somewhat similar to the arteries. Opposite 
the upper part of the bowel there are only primary loops. Occasionally a 
secondary loop appears, but it is small and insignificant as compared with 
the primary loops, which are large and quite regular. As we proceed 
down the bowel secondary loops become more numerous, larger, and 
approach nearer to the bowel than the primary loops in the upper part. 
As a rule, secondary loops become a prominent feature at about the fourth 
foot. As we continue farther downward the secondary loops (and, pos- 
sibly, tertiary loops) become still more numerous and the primary loops 

1 Poirier et Charpy. Traite d'Anatomie Humaine, T. 11, p. 771. 

2 Monks, G. H. Trans. Am. Surg. Asso., 1903. 

3 Dwight, T. Proc. Asso. Amer. Anatomists, 1897, Washington, 1898, x, 79-81. 


smaller, the loops all the time getting nearer and nearer to the gut. Op- 
posite the lower part of the gut the loops generally lose their characteristic 
appearance, and are represented by a complicated network. Opposite 
the upper part of the intestine the vasa recta are from three to five centi- 
meters long, when the loop of small intestine to which they run is lifted 
up so as to put them gently on the stretch. They are straight, large, and 
regular, and rarely give off branches in the mesentery. In the lower third 
they are very short, being generally less than one centimeter in length. 
Here they are less straight, smaller, less regular, and have frequent branches 
in the mesentery." 

The Blood Supply of the Large Intestine. — The blood supply of the 
large intestine has no special surgical features which require a detailed 
description. The cecum, the ascending and the transverse colon are sup- 
plied by branches of the superior mesenteric artery, — i. e., the ileocolic, 
the colica dextra, and the colica media. The descending colon and the 
sigmoid flexure are supplied by branches of the inferior mesenteric artery, 
— i. e., by the colica sinistra and the sigmoid arteries, — while the rectum is 
supplied by the three hemorrhoidal arteries which arise from the inferior 
mesenteric, the internal iliac, and the internal pudic arteries. 

The arrangement of the blood-vessels of the large intestine has its nearest 
approach to that of the small intestine in those portions most commonly 
affected with surgical disease. New growths of the large intestine (ex- 
cepting the rectum) are usually situated either in the sigmoid, the transverse 
colon, or the cecum, where the movability of the gut allows a relatively easy 
approach to the vessels. 

The colica media artery derives additional importance from its relation- 
ship with the gastrocolic omentum, where it may be wounded in operations 
upon the stomach. The colica media artery inosculates on either side 
with the colica dextra and the colica sinistra. The large primary arches 
formed in this manner are plainly exposed when the great omentum is 
reflected upwards. When the lesser peritoneal cavity is opened during 
the operation of posterior gastroenterostomy, a bloodless spot is chosen 
under the sweep of the primary arch as it runs to the left to join the 
colica sinistra artery. 



The following anatomical description is quoted practically verbatim 
from Poirier, Delamere, and Cuneo: 1 

"The Lymphatics of the Large Intestine. — Lymphatics of the Mo- 
pelvic Colon. — The lymphatics of the iliopelvic colon (sigmoid flexure) at 
first traverse some small glands which are attached to the terminal branches 
given off by the paraintestinal arch and formed by the anastomosis of the 
three sigmoid arteries. They then terminate in glands placed over the 
inferior mesenteric artery. 

"Lymphatics of the Descending Colon. — The lymphatic vessels of the 
descending colon present a somewhat similar arrangement to that of the 
iliopelvic colon. We need only note the poorly developed glandular appa- 
ratus attached to this part of the large intestine. 

"Lymphatics of the Transverse Colon. — The lymphatic apparatus 
of the transverse colon is much more developed. The juxtaintestinal 
glands (between the arch of the colica media artery and the intestinal border) 
are here numerous, especially in the neighborhood of the two extremities 
of the transverse colon. Further, one almost constantly finds one or two 
glands situated in the angle of the bifurcation of the middle colic as well 
as two or three others placed along the trunk of this artery. The trunks 
coming from the latter pass into the glands of the superior mesenteric chain. 

"The lymphatics of the transverse colon communicate to a large extent 
with those of the great omentum, so that they are brought into relation 
with the lymphatics of the inferior border of the stomach. 

"Lymphatics of the Ascending Colon. — The collecting trunks emanat- 
ing from the ascending colon at first traverse some few juxtaintestinal 
glands; they then meet a gland which is, however, inconstant, placed on 
the course of the ascending colic artery, and finally terminate in the glands 
of the superior mesenteric chain. 

"Lymphatics of the Cecum and Appendix. — The lymphatics of the 
cecum and appendix are much more developed than those of other segments 
of the large intestine. This is especially true in the case of the appendix, 
the lymphoid tissue of which is well known to be abundant. 

"The ceco-appendicular collecting trunks follow pretty closely the 
course of the blood-vessels. This fact will enable us to divide them into 
three groups : the anterior cecal, the posterior cecal, and the appendicular 
trunks, which respectively accompany the vessels of this name. 

1 Poirier, Delamere, and Cuneo. The Lymphatics, 1903. 


"(a) The anterior cecal collecting trunks appear on the anterior surface 
of the cecum. They run upwards and inwards, traversing one or two small 
glands situated in the thickness of the anterior ileocecal fold, and then 
terminate in a glandular mass placed on the terminal segment of the ileo- 
colic artery. 

"(b) The posterior cecal collecting trunks follow the course of the 
artery of this name. Like the preceding, they traverse some small glands 
— the posterior cecal. The latter, from three to six in number, are situated 
on the posterior aspect of the cecum, at the junction of this surface with 
the internal surface. Except in those rare cases where the coalescence 
of the posterior surface of the cecum and the parietal peritoneum is com- 
plete, these glands are covered by the visceral layer of peritoneum, which 
binds them to the posterior surface of the cecum. The posterior cecal 
lymphatics terminate in the ileocecal glandular group. 

"(c) The collecting trunks of the appendix, four or five in number, 
run up between the layers of the mesoappendix, accompanying the appen- 
dicular artery. Like this artery they cross the posterior surface of the ter- 
minal segment of the ileum, then penetrate into the mesentery, and ter- 
minate in the ileocecal glandular group. In their course these lymphatics 
traverse some small glands which we class under the generic term of appen- 
dicular glands. In the large majority of cases these glands, from one to 
three in number, are placed in the retroileal segment of the mesoappendix : 
they may then be styled the retroileal appendicular glands. Finally some 
of the glands of the mesoappendix may be placed immediately against the 
cecum, above the origin of the appendix; these are the juxtacecal appen- 
dicular glands. 

"The Lymphatics of the Small Intestine. — The lymphatics of both 
the large and the small intestine form two systems relatively independent 
of each other, one of which is attached to the mucous layer, the other to the 
muscular coat. The mode of termination of the collecting trunks of the 
small intestine is not the same in the region of the jejunoileum as in that 
of the duodenum. 

"Lymphatics of the Jejunoileum. — The collecting trunks, which 
are extremely numerous, make their appearance in the neighborhood of the 
mesenteric border of the intestine. If examined in the living subject, during 
intestinal digestion, they appear as slightly bossed channels of varying cal- 
iber, especially noticeable on account of their milky appearance. Though 
these glands appear, at first sight, to be indiscriminately scattered between 
the two folds of the mesentery, if observed more attentively we may convince 
ourselves that they are arranged on some fairly definite plan. It is also 


possible to divide them into three groups which vary in importance and 

"The mesenteric glands of the small intestine constitute one of the 
most important glandular centers in the human system. They vary in 
number from 130 to 150 (Quain), and their size varies greatly in different 

"These glands may be divided into three or more distinct groups: 

"(1) The primary group is made up of some small glands placed in 
the course of the terminal arterioles which spring from the last anastomotic 
arch of the superior mesenteric artery (vasa recta). This group may be 
considered as simple interrupting glandular nodules which have no mor- 
phological fixity. 

"(2) A second group comprises the glands placed in the course of the 
primary branches of the superior mesenteric artery, at the level of the first 
anastomotic arch formed by these vessels. These glands, which are larger 
than the preceding, are the true regional glands of the small intestine. 

"(3) The third group is found around the trunk of the superior mesen- 
teric artery, and more particularly about the commencement of this vessel. 
This group does not properly belong to the jejunoileum, as it receives, in 
addition, the efferents of the regional glands of the cecum ascending and 
transverse colon, duodenum, and even the efferents of certain glands con- 
nected with the stomach. 

"The second group of glands are especially numerous in the portion 
of the mesentery which corresponds to the jejunum. There is a progres- 
sive diminution in their number in each given segment of the mesentery 
until the terminal segment of the ileum is reached. Here in this terminal 
segment and in the ileocolic region of the mesentery the glands reappear 
in numbers and form an important mass around the ileocolic artery. The 
collecting trunks for these glands form two systems relatively independent 
of each other, one of which is attached to the mucous coat, and the other to 
the muscular coat of the intestine. 

"Lymphatics of the Duodenum. — The lymphatics of the duodenum 
end in numerous collecting trunks which are arranged on the same plan as 
those of the jejunoileum, but the pancreas divides these vessels, like the cor- 
responding blood-vessels, into two groups — an anterior group, the vessels 
of which end in glands placed on the prepancreatic vascular arch ; a posterior 
group, the lymphatics of which terminate in the satellite glands of the retro- 
pancreatic arch. From these glands, the pre- and the retropancreatic, 
run two systems of efferents. Some, ascending, terminate in the glands of 
the hepatic chain. Others, descending, are grouped around the superior 


mesenteric artery, at the spot where this vessel crosses the third part of the 

"The close relations which exist between the lymphatics of the duode- 
num, on the one hand, and those of the common bile duct, on the other, 
should be noticed. We shall see, later on, that anastomoses are also 
present between the lymphatics of the duodenum and those of the pyloric 
portion of the stomach." 


Intestinal localization, as a surgical procedure, has been rendered a practi- 
cal possibility by the researches of Monks. 1 Henke, 2 Sernoff, 3 Weinberg, 4 
and Mall 5 have also done valuable work upon the position of the intestines 
within the abdomen, but their results have so little bearing upon surgical 
anatomy that they are omitted here. 

The following description is a partial summary of the investigation 
of Dr. Monks; it is illustrated with ten drawings kindly loaned by him: 

In attempting to distinguish one portion of the small intestine from 
another two main difficulties are encountered, (i) Although the upper 
portion of the small intestine is called the jejunum, and the lower the ileum, 
yet there is no fixed point of transition from one to the other. For this 
reason we may be uncertain as to the correct name to apply to a large number 
of coils of intestine whose position we may know by exact measurement. It 
is better to locate a coil of intestine by its distance from the duodenojejunal 
flexure than by classing it as jejunum or ileum. (2) Though the nomen- 
clature is confusing, a further difficulty is added by the variation in the length 
of the small intestine, which was found by Monks to range between fifteen 
and thirty feet. 

The first problem to be met after drawing out an intestinal coil through 
an abdominal incision is to classify the coir according to its general position, 
that is, whether the coil belongs to the upper, middle, or lower portion of 
the digestive tube. The root of the mesentry of the small intestine is con- 
nected to the posterior abdominal wall obliquely, the upper end being 
attached just to the left of the second lumbar vertebra, the lower end to the 
right iliac fossa, at an indefinite point about six inches distant from the first. 

1 Monks, G. H. Trans. Am. Surgical Asso., 1903. 

2 Henke. His's Archiv, 1891. 

3 Sernoff. Internat. Monatschr. fiir Anat. u. Physiologie, 1894. 
* Weinberg. Ibid, 1896. 

5 Mall, F. Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, Vol. ix, 1898, p. 197. 


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The outer surface o£- the abdomen may be marked off in the shape of a 
figure H, the crossbar being represented by a projection of the line of 
attachment of the mesenteric root, the upright lines being placed at either 
end. These lines will be situated obliquely in relation to the perpendicular 
of the body (Figs. 80, 81). Roughly, the upper six feet of the small intes- 
tine are usually confined to the left hypochondriac region, above the upper 
of the side lines of the H. The middle portion of the intestine is usually 
found in the middle of the abdomen, while the lower part is below the 
lower side line of the H, in the pelvis or in the right iliac fossa. 

In identifying the position of a certain coil of intestine several factors 
should be considered. 

(1) It would be of assistance to know the length of the intestine, 
though the great variations in the measurement of the tube render it im- 
possible to prophesy what it will be in an individual case. Monks has 
found a certain number of times that a short intestinal tube was associated 
with a short mesentery. As the terminal arterioles (vasa recta) were found 
to be short also, in these cases of short mesentery, he suggests that the 
length of the vasa recta may give a clue to the whole length of the intestine. 
It is to be presumed that the mean length of the vasa recta is meant, since 
Monks himself found that these vessels varied much in length according 
to their position in the upper or the lower portions of the tube. 

(2) The size of the intestine, though relative, has well-known charac- 
teristics. The diameter is greatest at the upper end, diminishing gradually 
until the lower third is reached, after which it remains the same down 
to the ileocecal valve. It varies much in life at any given point under the 
influence of distention and certain other conditions. 

(3) The thickness of the intestine corresponds roughly to the size. 
The thick upper portion acquires this quality from the extra width of 
muscular walls, and from the presence of a large number of valvules, con- 
niventes. Toward the lower end the intestine becomes thinner, the val- 
vule conniventes lose their characteristic appearance of pinkish-white 
rings until they wholly disappear at fourteen or fifteen feet below the end 
of the duodenum. 

(4) As to the color of the intestine, the upper part is bright pink or 
red, with a large number of branching vessels. This color fades gradually, 
as we go downwards, to a pinkish or a yellowish-gray. To Dr. Monks's 


statement may be added the great contrast betweerf the cecum and the 
lower end of the ileum, for though this portion of the small intestine may- 
be lighter in color than the jejunum, yet it is much darker than the cecum, 
the light gray tone of which offers a marked contrast to the darker shade 
of the ileum. 

(5) An examination of the blood-vessels of the intestine furnishes 
some of the best evidence for the determination of the identity of a loop. 
As the observations of Dr. Monks have already been quoted above on this 
subject, it will only be necessary to state that, in the upper portion of the in- 
testine, the mesenteric vessels have a simple arrangement, that is, in a single 
arch which is placed at a distance from the intestinal border (long vasa recta). 
As the lower end of the intestine is approached, the arrangement becomes 
more elaborate, a second, or even a third, arch being superimposed upon 
the other, the distance between the last arch and the intestinal border grow- 
ing less. Near the lower end of the tube the vascular arrangement is less 
clearly marked, and consists of a confusion of anastomosing branches, 
from which spring a series of short vasa recta (Figs. 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87). 

(6) The thickness and the transparency of the mensentery vary 
very much in different subjects, the more obese the patient the more opaque 
the mesentery. The thinnest part of the mesentery is adjacent to the thick- 
est portion of the intestine, — i. e., the upper end. The mesentery becomes 
thicker as we go downward, while the intestine becomes thinner. The 
translucency also varies with individuals. Dr. Monks has found trans- 
parent spots between the upper vasa recta in nearly all cases, regardless of 
fat deposit. These spots, which he calls "lunettes," disappear at about 
the eighth foot. 

(7) Small masses of fat may be found in the lower third of the small 
intestine which project from the mesentery toward the bowel. These tabs 
of fat were seen many times by Monks, even in very thin subjects. 

(8) The determination of the direction of any given loop of intestine 
is of high importance, even after the general situation of the coil has been 
located. The operations of gastroenterostomy and appendicectomy are 
good examples of the circumstances when a knowledge of the direction of 
the loop is an absolute necessity. 

Monks, in working upon the cadaver, determines the direction of a 

Fig. 82. — A loop of intestine, the middle of which is exactly three feet from the end of the duo- 
denum. The gut is of large size. The mesenteric loops are primary and the vasa recta large, long, 
and regular in distribution. The translucent spaces (lunettes) between the vessels are extensive. Be- 
low, the mesentery is streaked with fat. The veins, which had a distribution similar to the arteries, 
are for simplicity omitted from this and from the subsequent drawings. The subject from which 
the specimen was taken was a male of 40 years, with rather less than the usual amount of fat. The 
entire length of the intestine was twenty-three feet. (Monks.) 

Fig. 83. — A loop of intestine at six feet. As compared with Fig. 82 the gut is somewhat smaller. 
The vascularity of the intestine and mesentery is less. Secondary loops are a prominent feature. The 
vasa recta are smaller. The lunettes are also present, but are not so large as in Fig. 82. The sub- 
ject was a male of about 35 years, with an average amount of fat. The entire length of the intestine 
was twenty feet. (Monks.) 


Fig. 84. — A loop of intestine at nine feet. The secondary loops are large; the vasa recta are 
somewhat irregular and show branches. No lunettes are present and the mesentery is streaked with 
fat, and is therefore somewhat opaque. The specimen was taken from the same subject which fur- 
nished Fig. 82. (Monks.) 

Fig. 85. — A loop of intestine at twelve feet. The vessels are smaller. The primary loops are 
lost in the fat, but secondary and even tertiary loops are visible. The vasa recta are shorter, more 
irregular and branching. The specimen came from the subject which furnishes Figs. 82 and S4. (Monks ) 

Fig. S6. — A loop of intestine at seventeen feet. The mesentery is opaque, and small tabs of fat 
begin to appear along the mesenteric border of the gut. The vessels are represented by a somewhat 
complicated network and are seen with difficulty in the thick fat of the mesentery. The specimen 
came from the subject which furnishes Figs. S2, Sa, 85. (Monks.) 

Fig. 87. — A loop of intestine at twenty feet. The gut appears to be thick and large. The mes- 
entery is quite fat, opaque, and large, and numerous fat tabs are present. The vessels which are com- 
plicated are seen with difficulty, and are represented by mere grooves in the fat. The subject was a 
stout woman, and the entire length of the gut was twenty-one feet. (Monks.) 


12 3 


doubtful loop in the following manner: The mesentery is drawn tight 
and the fingers passed down to the attachment of the mesentery to the 
posterior abdominal wall. Palpation between the thumb and forefinger 
will make clear the line of mesenteric insertion, and disclose any twists in 
the mesentery itself. After freeing any possible twists the loop is arranged 
so as to be parallel to the line of attachment of its mesentery. This will 
leave the upper end in a proximal, and the lower end in a distal position, 
as it normally should be (Fig. 88). 

The value of peristalsis in indicating the direction of the loop is usually 
underestimated. Dr. Monks feels that it is not reliable, and suggests that 
it may be impossible, in a given case, to tell whether the peristalsis does not 
run backward. 

In 1884 Nothnagel 1 produced intestinal contractions by the application 

Fig. 88. — Showing the- method of determining the real direction of the gut by passing the thumb 
down on one side of the mesentery, and the fore and middle fingers down on the other, in the direction 
of the mesenteric loop. (Monks.) 

of crystals of sodium and potassium to the surface of the gut. Bayliss and 
Starling have shown upon normal animals that the peristaltic contractions 
of the intestine, when evoked by local stimulation, are true coordinated 
reflexes, which are carried out by the local nervous mechanism (Auerbach's 

1 Nothnagel. Physiologie u. Pathologie des darms., Berlin, 1884. 


plexus). They are independent of the connection of the gut with the central 
nervous system, and travel only in one direction, from above downwards. 
In 1887 Mall and Halsted 1 resected an intestinal coil, leaving it attached 
by its mesentery. They then sutured the upper end of the loop to the lower 
end of the alimentary canal, and the lower end of the loop to the intestine 
coming from the stomach. Subsequent observations upon the intestines 
of these animals both during life and after death showed that the peristaltic 
wave of the reversed coil travelled in a direction opposite to that of the 
unreversed intestine. Bayliss and Starling believe that the preponderance 
of the descending contractions in the normal animal may be due to the 
higher excitability of the fibers at the duodenal end of the gut, and to the 
constant presence of ascending augmentor stimuli. The law of intestinal 
peristalsis, as described by Bayliss and Starling, is comprised of two re- 
actions: contraction above, and relaxation below the stimulated point. 
In order to demonstrate the intestinal movements upon animals it was 
necessary to isolate the intestines from the influence of the central nervous 
system (section of both vagi, both splanchnics, or of abdominal ganglia). 
The following remarks are quoted from a report of an experiment done by 
Bayliss and Starling 2 upon an animal in which the intestines were still 
connected with the central nervous system: 

' ' On opening the abdomen in a warm saline bath, the intestines are seen 
to be collapsed and absolutely motionless. Local irritation, electrical or 
mechanical, either provokes no response at all, or if strong enough, causes 
a local contraction limited to the stimulated spot. On inserting a rubber 
capsule distended with air under pressure and connected with a piston 
recorder, the lever of the recorder remains permanently motionless. If 
contractions are present they are slight in extent and irregular in rhythm. " 

The statement of Bayliss and Starling applies to the accurate observa- 
tion of the intestinal reflexes. For surgical purposes it is not necessary 
to produce contraction above and relaxation below the stimulated point, 
a rough test is merely needed to indicate the direction of the peristalis. 
Such a test is the following: An intestinal loop is drawn out, and its free 
border given a sharp pinch with the fingers. The hand is quickly drawn 
away in order to observe the beginning of the contraction which will be 

1 Mall, F. Reversal of the Intestines, Johns Hopkins Hospital Report, Vol. 1, p. 93. 

2 Bayliss and Starling. Journal of Physiology, 1899, Vol. xxiv, p. 120. 


evoked. In response to the pinch there is no coordinated peristaltic move- 
ment, but the muscle fibers which were grasped by the fingers slowly begin 
to contract. The edges of the contracting area should be watched to see 
in which direction the contraction first spreads, for the distal side reacts first. 
In animals there is frequently a narrowing of the intestinal lumen both 
upward and downward over an area of several inches, so that only the 
earliest moment of the contraction is of importance. It is practically 
always possible, in normal intestines, to orient the coil by this manoeuvre, 
but the very beginning of the contraction must be watched in order to make 
the test a success. In attempting to elicit a peristaltic reaction, a light 
brushing with the finger-tips is not sufficient, since it usually requires a 
firm pinch to obtain a contraction. Nothnagel's salt test has been recom- 
mended by Senn 1 and others, but at present it is not regarded as a practical 
surgical procedure. 

1 Senn, N. Practical Surgery, 1901, p. 844. 


(I) End-to-end Anastomosis, 
(i) Plain. 

(2) Mattress. 

(3) Mechanical devices. 

(a) Murphy button. 

(b) Harrington ring. 

(c) Robson bone-bobbin. 
(II) Formation of Blind End. 

(1) Suture in two layers. 

(2) Purse-string. 

(III) Lateral Anastomosis. 

(1) Plain. 

(2) Mattress. 

(3) Mechanical devices. 

(a) Jaboulay's button: ring; bobbin. 

(b) McGraw rubber ligature. 

(IV) End-to-side Anastomosis. 
(V) Colostomy. 

(1) Permanent. 

(a) Left inguinal. 

(b) Anterior. 

(2) Temporary. 

(a) Rubber ligature. 

(b) Glass tube. 


The excision of a part of the intestine is frequently demanded. The 
small intestine may be invaded at any point in its whole length by disease 
which can only be cured by its removal. Although primary lesions of a 



serious nature are not often found in the jejunum, several cases have been 
reported where infarction of the mesenteric vessels or penetrating wounds 
have necessitated an operation upon this part of the gut, at its very beginning 
where it is most inaccessible. No portion of the large intestine, from the 
ileocecal valve to the rectum, is exempt from the possibility of operative 

A list of certain of the indications for enterectomy is appended below 
which conforms in the main with the views recently published by Moynihan ■} 

New Growths. — The most common form of new growths which occurs 
in the intestine is cancer, which, though occasionally met with in the small 
intestine, is most frequently found in the colon and rectum. Tillmann 
suggests that new growths tend to appear at points where the friction from 
the passage of the intestinal contents is greatest, as in the cecum and at the 
flexures of the colon. The same may be said of the sigmoid flexure and 
of the rectum. In the small intestine small round-cell sarcoma is occasion- 
ally encountered. 

In resecting the intestine for malignant disease the mesenteric glands 
should be palpated and removed with a good margin of mesenteric fat. 
When no glands can be made out, a wide margin of mesentery is still neces- 
sary since the mesenteric fat may be infected before the glands themselves 
are large enough to be palpable. In excising the mesentery the margin 
referred to should be taken down toward the root of the mesentery to get 
between the infection and the deep glands. 

Stricture may come as a result of inflammation or ulceration of the 
inner surface of the intestine. This is occasionally secondary to the irrita- 
tion of a foreign body, such as an enterolith, though the circular ulceration 
which typifies the tubercular lesion in the lower portion of the ileum is a 
more common cause of obstruction. Another condition to be classed under 
the head of intestinal strictures which require resection is the chronic 
intestinal obstruction which not infrequently follows abdominal operations. 
Upon reopening the abdomen the small intestine may be found adherent 
to the peritoneal surface of the scar of the first operation. 2 It seems prob- 
able that, for an adhesion to form between the abdominal scar and a coil 

1 Moynihan, B. G. A. Abdominal Operations, 1905, p. 303. 

2 S. S. Records, Mass. Gen. Hospital, Vol. lxv, p. 83. 


of intestine, some injury to the serous coat of the bowel is necessary. This 
would only require a slight abrasion of the peritoneum, an accident which 
may happen during any prolonged abdominal operation. In performing 
secondary operations upon animals the great omentum is invariably found 
fastened to the under surface of the scar of the first operation. Without 
doubt the protection thus afforded by the omentum prevents the intestine 
from becoming attached to the abdominal scar. In certain cases, when the 
adhesions between the intestine and the scar are extensive, chronic intes- 
tinal obstruction results. Here the lumen of the gut is constricted over an 
area two or three inches in length, and a complete cutting off of the passage 
of the intestinal contents is constantly threatened by the danger of kink for- 
mation or of swelling of the mucous membrane lining the constricted coil. 

Gangrene of the intestine is usually due to interference with the blood 
supply. This may result from one of two causes: either from disease of 
the blood-vessels, themselves, or from pressure exerted on the outside of 
the intestine. When gangrene is associated with disease of the blood- 
vessels either a venous or an arterial lesion may be present, the end result 
being a progressive blocking of both the arterial and the venous trunks 
with clots which are propagated into the main vessels, thus causing necrosis 
of a considerable length of intestine. Examples of gangrene from outside 
pressure are volvulus, constriction in a hernial sac, etc. 

Among the other conditions which demand a removal of a portion of 
the intestine are intussusception, which cannot be manually reduced ; gun- 
shot wounds, or extensive lacerations of the intestine or its mesentery; 
and intractable fecal fistula. 


The elementary precautions to be observed in suturing an intestine 
end to end differ in no way from those required for any other form of technic. 
Leakage of individual stitches may result from soiling of the suture line 
with septic intestinal contents, from bruising of the cut edges, or from 
inaccurate approximation of the peritoneum (Chapter II). It has become 
recognized as a fact, since the knowledge of Schede's 1 work has become 
diffused, that resection and anastomosis do not necessarily go together; 

1 Schede. Deutsch. Med. Wochenschr., 1887, xm; Deutsch. Zeitsch. fur Chir., 1901, ixx, 59. 


the indications for the former may be peremptory, while the latter may be 
contraindicated. The presence of chronic obstruction implies a thickened 
bowel above the lesion, associated with more or less distention. Unless 
the cause of the symptoms is recognized early, the surgeon is likely to find 
the intestines under the influence of cathartics. Since the peristalsis is 
quieted by ether this contingency may be overlooked, only to find that the 
intestinal action is violently resumed when the effect of the anesthetic wears 
off. Anastomoses which are done under these conditions are subjected 
to a great strain by the subsequent contractions of the muscular walls of 
the intestines. In all but the more acute conditions, therefore, it is con- 
sidered safer to perform the operation at two sittings, the first operation 
consisting in resecting the diseased area, with the formation of an artificial 
anus. After the gut has been allowed a complete rest, an end-to-end suture 
can be performed with the best chance of success. 1 

The studies of Monks 2 concerning drainage of distended intestines are 
not out of place here. In view of the well-known fact that enterostomy, 
done to relieve distention of the small intestine, is usually followed by the 
escape of little gas or intestinal contents at the time of. operation, Monks 
made several experiments upon the cadaver. Upon opening a number of 
gas-distended coils he found in every case that the collapse of the gut, which 
followed the escape of the gas, was a purely local one, only a coil or two 
emptying its contents, while the rest of the intestine remained as distended 
as before. He came to the conclusion, as far as dead or paralyzed bowel 
is concerned, that the small intestine consisted presumably of various seg- 
ments, not always opening freely into one another, which segments acted 
as separate reservoirs for gas or other contents, and that the collapse, by 
emptying one of them, did not necessarily mean the immediate emptying 
of the others. After filling the intestinal loops with water and gas it was 
found that the water, which occupied the most dependent portions of the 
loops, acted as an efficient plumber's trap, separating the different segments 
of the intestine. In addition to the obstacles presented by these traps in the 
most dependent loops, where the water collects, semisolid contents and 
kinks may act in the same manner. He also found that the weight of the 

1 Treves. Operative Surgery, Vol. n, p. 323. 

2 Monks, G. H. Annals of Surgery, October, 1905. 



intestinal contents may press the sides of the gut so firmly together that 
even the pressure within the adjacent distended gut is not sufficient, with- 
out peristalsis, to open up the tube and allow the gas to pass on. A num- 
ber of experiments were made to determine what lengths of intestine can 
be gathered on a tube when the instrument was passed through an abdom- 
inal wound of the ordinary length, and also through an opening into the gut 

Fig. 89. — Showing how soon a straight instrument passed into the gut may engage its free border. 


"such as is made in most enterostomies. " Monks got the best results with a 
glass tube the size of an ordinary lead-pencil, the extremity of which was 
curved, with the opening on the concave side (Fig. 89) . He found that, if the 
abdominal wound can be made long enough, and if ,the tube is of sufficient 
length, the greater part of the small intestine may be gathered on the tube. 
Moynihan 1 adopts a similar plan for drainage of the bowel in cases of ob- 

1 Moynihan, B. G. A. Abdominal Operations, 1905, p. 279. 


struction. He opens the bowel on the free border and inserts a glass tube 
six inches long, after which he finds that he can readily draw from eight to 
ten feet of intestine upon a tube of this length. Elliott's 1 technic for re- 
section and drainage is the following: After resection he immediately 
unites the mesenteric borders of the proximal and distal loops to facilitate 
the subsequent closing of the artificial anus. Care is taken to wall off the 
peritoneal cavity completely before allowing the contents of the proximal 
distended intestine to escape. 

Two practical dangers are incurred in anastomosing the bowels end to 
end, — first, leakage from defective approximation at the mesenteric borders, 
and, second, a subsequent obstruction' from turning in too wide an angle. 
Before Maunsell and Connell introduced the mattress mesenteric stitch 
this inaccessible portion of the circumference was fastened by means of 
stitches which grasped the mesenteric insertion parallel to the long axis of 
the bowel. The tying of these mesenteric stitches constricted the vasa 
recta and subjected the line of anastomosis to a not remote danger of 
anemic necrosis. This danger is eliminated by the use of the mattress 
mesenteric stitch. Post-operative obstruction at the site of the joint is 
caused either by taking the seromuscular stitches too far from the edge, or 
by reinforcing the joint with a second layer of outside stitches. A dia- 
phragm is thus formed which may either dam the intestinal current, else, 
if the edge be turned in to a less degree, the bowel above the joint may be 
forced down by the peristalsis and caught by the diaphragm, thus resulting 
in an intussusception. 

There are three principal methods by which an end-to-end anastomosis 
may be made: 

(1) The Plain Anastomosis. 

(2) The Mattress Anastomosis. 

(3) Mechanical Devices. 

(a) Murphy button. 

(b) Harrington ring. 

(c) Robson bone bobbin. 

Among the various methods of joining intestines end to end a few 
are to be described in detail which are in wide use at the present time. 

1 Elliot, J. W. Annals of Surgery, November, 1905. 


Mechanical devices may have had their day; they certainly have proved of 
the utmost value during the evolutionary period of gastrointestinal work. 
But a large number of surgeons still prefer such instruments as the Murphy 
button, the Harrington segmented ring, and the Robson decalcified bone 
bobbin. Since there is a demand for mechanical aids in the surgery of the 
intestinal tract, the author has thought it wise to explain the best and 
the simplest methods of technic required for their use. 

The plain anastomosis with two layers of stitches has already been 
discussed at length. In the opinion of the majority of operators this technic 
includes all of the essential requirements for this work. The accepted 
advantages of the Connell mattress anastomosis are two: (i) The union 
gains great strength by the penetration of each stitch through every coat 
of the bowel. These stitches do not pull out if snugly tied, because the pull 
is all sustained by the loop, which, being placed across the muscle-fibers, 
cannot cut out through the lines of muscular cleavage. (2) This stout 
grip of the mattress stitches allows their being introduced very close to the 
cut edge of the bowel, so that practically no inversion results. It is not 
possible to decide between the plain and the mattress anastomoses on the 
ground of leakage dangers, for an accurate observance of the special points 
of either technic should give a safe joint. It is evident, however, that the 
most satisfactory work will be done by the operator who confines himself 
to one of these methods, without attempting to become equally familiar 
with all. 


Steps : 

(1) Clamps. 

(2) Resection. 

(3) Mattress mesenteric stitch. 

(4) First two guides to mesenteric border. 

(5) Continuous suture of circumference through all coats. 

(6) Seromuscular stitch, interrupted, or continuous. 

(7) Approximation of cut mesenteric edges. 

The coil of intestine to be resected is withdrawn from the abdomen, 
and, to avoid subsequent soiling of the wound, the intestinal contents are 
pushed to either side by stripping with the fingers. Clamps are then applied 


to the intestine, at a right angle to the lumen, leaving a margin of about 
three inches on either side of the area to be cut out. A good instrument 
to use for this purpose is the straight circumcision clamp, the jaws of which 
have been covered with rubber tubing. Finally, a handkerchief gauze is 
wrapped around the intestines beneath the clamps to isolate the field of 
operation from the abdomen. To prevent spilling out of whatever contents 
are left in the resected portion, clamps or circular ties will be required. If 
no intestinal clamps are at hand, straight half-length clamps may be used, 
without covering. In resecting the bowel, there is always vigorous bleeding 
from the terminal branches of the small vascular arches which run parallel 
with the bowel, near the mesenteric attachment, — i. e., the vasa recta. These 
vessels are best tied double and cut before opening the intestine, including 
as little as possible of the mesenteric fat. The coil is now grasped by the 
fingers of an assistant, about an inch on either side of the point at which 
the incision is to be made, and the operator cuts carefully with a knife 
through all coats of the bowel, wiping away the blood and the intestinal 
contents with the left hand. It is better to finish the resection with scissors, 
in order to watch each side as it is cut away (Fig. 90). 

It has become traditional to cut away the bowel obliquely to make sure 
of the blood supply at the free edge (Madelung 1 ). A slight obliquity is 
necessary to aUow for the excess of inturned edge at the mesenteric border. 
Sloughing of the joined edges will not occur, however, if the mattress mesen- 
teric stitch is used, although, as mentioned before, the old method of joining 
the mesenteric edges with stitches taken parallel with the bowel wall may 
cut off the circulation and cause anemic necrosis of the joined edges. The 
incision is finally continued down through the mesentery for two or three 
inches, avoiding the evident vessels and tying when necessary. Finally, 
the narrow pedicle of mesentery which remains is tied off and cut, which 
completes the resection. Of the several ways of treating the mesentery 
shown in Fig. 91, the best is the removal of a wedge-shaped piece, as de- 
scribed in the text. 

The placing of the Maunsell mesenteric stitch forms the starting-point 
of the anastomosis. This should enter and leave the bowel a little more 

1 Madelung, O. Verhandl. der Deutsch. Gesellsch. fur Chir., Berlin, 1881, x, pt. 2, pp. 
414-464; Archiv fur Klin. Chir., Berlin, 1881-2, xxvn, pp. 277-326. 


than one-eighth inch from the cut edge, but should penetrate the mesenteric 
space and the peritoneum farther forward. This furnishes an ample width 
of edge for the subsequent continuous catgut stitch, without separating the 
bowel edges with a thick mass of fat (Fig. 92). The mesenteric third of 
the bowel circumference is rather inaccessible, and, to bring this portion 
forward, guide stitches are introduced. The scheme for developing the mes- 
enteric border with the first two guides was originally described by Jabou- 
lay and Briau, 1 but, as their method of placing the inner layer of stitches 
is out of date, it has been here modified to include all the recent technical 
improvements. To control hemorrhage, and to bring the cut edges together, 
a continuous chromic catgut stitch is used, size preferably No. o. This 
stitch starts a short distance to one side of the mesenteric border, where it 
is tied outside of the bowel, leaving a long end to be used for the first guide. 
A second guide is next placed on the opposite side of and at an equal dis- 
tance from the mesenteric border, with its ends left inside, to invert the bowel 
edges. The distance between the two guides should equal, approximately, 
one-third the circumference. Upon tightening the guides the cut edges 
between the two are exposed, and the continuous through-and-through 
stitch passes across from one guide to the other (Fig. 93). When the 
second guide is reached, a third guide is introduced half-way between the 
first two, .on the free edge of the bowel, opposite the mesenteric attachment. 
The ends of this guide are left outside. Traction on this, and on the lower 
guides, will make easy the completion of the continuous stitch (Fig. 94). 
The end of the continuous suture left after circling the circumference is 
tied to the long end left on the first knot, and the guides removed. The 
continuity of the chromic stitch must be broken occasionally by knots, so 
as to make it difficult to narrow the lumen by drawing the catgut into a 
purse-string, and, also, to give greater security to the joint. 

The most important step in the anastomosis is the seromuscular suture. 
Both continuous and interrupted stitches are employed for this purpose, 
but the Lembert stitch is on the whole more reliable. The first interrupted 
seromuscular stitch is placed on the free edge, opposite the mesenteric 
border, and is followed by a stitch at the mesenteric border on either side. 
The ends of these three stitches are left long, as they make excellent guides for 
1 Jaboulay et Briau. Lyon Mddical, 1896, T. lxxxi, 19 Avril, p. 529. 


















2 n 

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8. I 
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Fig. 91. — This figure shows several methods of sewing together the cut mesenteric edges after 
resection of the bowel. None of the methods need explanation except the last two on the right, where 
the bowel has been cut away without removing the usual V °f mesentery. The redundant mesentery 
is folded on one side and tacked down to the mesentery on three sides. (Redrawn from Bickham.) 

Fig. 92. — End-to-end Anastomosis. 
Mattress mesenteric stitch. 



Fig. 93. — End-to-end Anastomosis. 

Sewing mesenteric third of circumference. Guides are held by an assistant. The guide on the left 

is merely the long end left at the beginning of the continuous over-and-over stitch. 

Fig. 94. — End-to-end Anastomosis. 
Closing in the last third of the circumference. The guide on the right has been placed at a 
point opposite the mesenteric border. The guide on the left is the original long end left at the first 
knot, and was also used as a guide in sewing the mesenteric third. 



the remaining stitches, which are introduced in -the usual way (Fig. 95). The 

Fig. 95. — End-to-end Anastomosis. 
Placing the interrupted Lembert stitches. Two interrupted stitches have already been placed at 
the free and the mesenteric borders respectively. These first two stitches are used as guides to assist 
in the introduction of the remaining interrupted stitches. 

Fig. 96. — End-to-end Anastomosis. 
The suture has been completed. The cut edges of the mesentery have been sewed together with 

interrupted stitches. 

mesentery is, finally, caught together with a few interrupted stitches (Fig. 96). 

i 4 4 


When doubt exists about the ability of the stitches to hold the joint 
tight, it is possible to reinforce the suture line by grafting a bit of omentum 
over the spot in question (Fig. 97, after Bickham). The following technic 
is recommended by Senn for this procedure : A piece of the great omentum, 
of the proper shape and size to cover the suture line, is cut off with scissors. 
Senn immerses the grafts in saline solution and, later, presses them out 
before fastening them in place. If the experience obtained in skin-grafting 
can be applied to omental grafting, the soaking of the grafts is a disad- 
vantage, as it deprives the tissues of blood (Porter). It is better that the 

Fig. 97. — Omental Graft. (After Bickham.) 

grafts be touched as little as possible before attaching them in place, 
since any considerable handling must destroy their vitality. In my experi- 
mental work upon repair, several sections were obtained in which adhe- 
sions were present between the omentum and the suture line; in one case 
only was the omentum attached intentionally, and then without cutting 
it off from its blood-supply. In these sections the process of repair 
appeared to have advanced more rapidly between the intestine and the 
omentum than between intestine and intestine at the line of anastomosis. 
If deductions can be drawn from animals, where the repair is very 


active, grafting, on the whole, is not desirable, because the graft becomes 
fastened to the neighboring intestinal coils, as well as to the suture line. 
As a consequence, a mass of tangled adhesions may tie together several 
loops of intestine. 

Senn 1 states that the adhesions between omental grafts and intestinal 
serosa seemed denser when the serosa had been prepared by gentle scoring. 
This stimulates an exudation of serum, and, for this reason, was adopted 
by Senn as a part of his technic. 

The grafts are fastened in place by a few soluble interrupted stitches. 

This anastomosis is known as the method of Connell. 2 It is an effective 
adaptation of the mattress stitch to end-to-end anastomosis. 
Steps : 

(1) Three mattress stitches to the mesenteric border. 

(2) Mattress guides develop one-third of the circumference. 

(3) Mattress stitches to first third. 

(4) Mattress guide to adjoining third of circumference. 

(5) Second third of circumference everted and sewed from inside 

with mattress stitches. 

(6) Second third allowed to retract, and last third of circumference 

sewed from outside. 

(7) Last stitch, Cushing mattress. 

(8) Approximation of cut mesenteric edges. 

The mattress mesenteric stitch is introduced as before described. It was 
explained under the technic of the plain anastomosis that it is always best 
to complete the mesenteric portion of the joint before closing in the re- 
mainder of the circumference. For this reason it is desirable to place 
a mattress stitch on either side of the usual mesenteric stitch before pro- 
ceeding with the rest of the suture. This point was suggested by Coffey 
in his technic. The second and the third mesenteric mattress stitches 
should be placed so close to the first that their inner halves also include a 
portion of the mesentery (Fig. 98). One of the two outer mesenteric 
stitches is left long for future use as a guide. The next step is to develop 

1 Senn, N. Practical Surgery, 1901, p. 821. 

2 Connell, F. G. Philadelphia Monthly Med. Journal, Vol. 1, 1899. 



the cut edges of the first third of the bowel circumference. To do this, two 
mattress guides are necessary, the first being placed on the side of the intes- 
tine, at a distance from the mesentery which corresponds to one-third the 
bowel circumference, while for the second guide the outer of the three 
mesenteric stitches is utilized, the ends of which have been previously left 

In Fig. 99 the guides are taut, thus bringing forward the cut bowel 
edges. The anastomosis depends wholly upon one layer of through-and- 
through mattress stitches, introduced one-eighth inch from the edge, and 
tied on the inside, as described in Chapter II. It is critical that the stitches 

Fig. 98. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress. 

Shows method of placing the three mattress mesenteric stitches. For the sake of clearness these 

stitches have not been tied, although, actually, each stitch should be tied as soon as it is introduced. 

be placed close together, else bleeding may occur from the cut edges between 
stitches. Connell advises that the interval be not over one-eighth inch. 
After completing the suture of the first third of the circumference, the 
mesenteric guide is cut short, and a third mattress guide introduced, at a 
distance from the second guide equal to one-third the circumference. After 
tying this guide-stitch, the long ends of the second guide are passed beneath 
this third guide. Traction upon the second and the third guides will turn 
the mucous surface of the intestine outside in such a manner that the second 
third of the circumference is brought forward, thus allowing the edges to be 
easily sewed from the inside with interrupted mattress stitches (Fig. 100). 



The second guide is now cut, and the everted portion allowed to retract 
inside, leaving a small space to be closed in. It is possible, by placing the 
second and the third guides very wide apart, to sew together three-fourths 
the circumference of the intestine from the inside. At present Connell 
sutures the circumference by halves instead of by thirds, a modification 
which is made possible by placing the guides wide apart, as just stated. 

The last portion to be closed in, between the third guide and the mesen- 
teric border, is done as follows: The assistant holds the two coils side by 

Fig. 99. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress. 
First third of bowel circumference developed by guides A and B. The intervening space is being 
closed with interrupted mattress stitches. Guide A is the outer mesenteric mattress stitch. Guide B 
marks the first third of the circumference. The point C designates the site of the third mattress guide. 

side between the thumb and the middle finger of the left hand, the first 
finger being placed between the two coils and under the suture (Fig. 101). 
The right hand draws down on the long end, which is always left on the 
last stitch, thus rolling in the cut edges, as the new stitch is being placed. 
When the stitch has been tied, the one just used as a guide is cut short, 
and the last stitch taken is left long, with which to invert the edges for the 
next stitch (Scudder). Although the stitches which approximate the last 
third of the circumference penetrate the bowel edges in exactly the same 

1 Scudder, C. L. Unpublished communication. 



manner as those of the first two-thirds, yet, from the point of view of the 
operator, they seem to be reversed. For this reason it will be well to bear 
in mind that (i) the needle always starts from within the lumen; (2) the 
needle always goes from mucous membrane to peritoneum, and from per- 
itoneum to mucous membrane, or, m-p-p-m. 

It is not possible to tie the last stitch without resorting to some expedient 
to assist in turning in the peritoneum. Connell overcomes the difficulty 
as follows: The blunt end of a needle is inserted between two stitches 

Fig. 100. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress. 
Guides B and C develop the second third of the circumference, their points of introduction being 
shown in Fig. 99 . The circumference has been turned inside out by passing guide B beneath guide 
C, and drawing tight the two ends, thus allowing the second third of the circumference to be sewed 
from the inside. 

at a distance from the stitch about to be tied, and the eye pushed up until 
it emerges through the space to be closed in by the^last stitch. Both ends 
of this stitch are threaded through the eye and are drawn out with the needle 
until the free ends can be grasped outside the bowel. Here the ends are 
tied and the knot allowed to retract into the lumen. This finishes the 
suture, but many surgeons find it simpler to close in the last gap with a 
Cushing mattress stitch, as shown in Fig. 102, than to adopt the rather 
difficult suggestion of Connell. When well done, this anastomosis gives a 



very strong, artistic joint, because the stitches penetrate all coats, and, when 
tied, do not show on the outside. 

Mechanical devices are used for two purposes: (1) for speed, (2) as a 
support to hold the cut edges in place during the introduction of the outer 

Fig. ioi. — End-to- end Anastomosis, Conneli. Mattress. 
The everted bowel edges have been replaced and the last third of the circumference ; s now being 
closed in by mattress stitches, which are apparently reversed. Note that traction on the long ends 
left on the previous mattress stitch inverts the cut bowel edges, and thus assists in tying the next stitch. 
Note also method of holding the bowel by assistant. 

layer of stitches. Three devices are described below which contain practi- 
cally all the advantages of mechanical aids. Although these instruments 
actually do gain time, in the hands of experienced operators, they should 
not be chosen for the apparent simplicity of their use. Each requires an 
accurate knowledge of what the instrument can do, and the technic is based 
upon this experience. 



The Murphy 1 button is used mainly for speed, and offers a very rapid 
method for end-to-end or for lateral anastomosis. It is not necessary 
to give a careful description of the device, since its every feature is perfectly 
familiar to all. In using the Murphy button the operator must place the 
patient's life in the hands of the instrument -maker, for slight imperfections 
in construction have repeatedly resulted in separation of the button halves 
and leakage of the joint. The instrument has been modified in several 
particulars since it was originally introduced, the improvements being 
directed chiefly toward increasing the lumen of the inner tube. 

Fig. 102. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Connell Mattress. 
Introduction of last stitch, ends tied on the outside. 

Steps : 

(i) Clamps. 

(2) Purse-strings. 

(3) Resection. 

(4) Introduction of button halves. 

(5) Tying purse-strings. 

(6) Halves of button snapped together. 

(7) Sewing of mesentery. 

1 Murphy, J. B. Chicago Med. Recorder, December, 1892; New York Med. Record, 
December 14, 1892. 

Fig. 103. — End to-end Anastomosis. 
Introduction of the Murphy button. Note purse-string sutures, and clamps on button halves. 

Fig. 104. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Murphy Button. 
The button halves have been snapped together and the joint reinforced with a few interrupted 


I 5 I 


The application of the clamps is made in the same manner as in other 
end-to-end anastomoses. The purse-strings should be of soluble material, 
preferably No. 2 plain catgut. These sutures are introduced after the 
method shown by Figs. 56, 57. A good margin is chosen on either side 
of the area to be resected and the purse-string placed, a half-knot being 
tied in the loose ends to save time later. The area to be removed is now 
clamped off and the incisions made on the outer side of either clamp up to 
one-eighth inch of the purse-strings. The removal of the resected portion 
with its mesentery has been described under the plain suture. The un- 
screwed halves of the button are seized with artery or special forceps, 
inserted into the open bowel lumina, and the purse-strings tied down to the 
male and the female tubes (Fig. 103). The forceps are then removed by 
an assistant while the surgeon grasps the bowels close behind the button 
halves to prevent their slipping back inside. The completion of the anas- 
tomosis is accomplished by invaginating the male tube of one-half into the 
female tube of the other, and thus forcing the peritoneal coats into tight 
apposition (Fig. 104). The button is provided with a spring which will 
make allowance for a certain amount of irregularity in the joined surfaces ; 
but the mesenteric border will always remain a weak spot. This will be 
recognized when it is remembered that the purse-string, by its inversion of 
the bowel ends, draws with it a portion of the mesentery. Since this thick 
wad of fat must be crushed before the joint can be made tight, it is safer to 
put in an occasional interrupted stitch before closing the abdomen. When 
used for lateral anastomosis, the button is placed between layers of equal 
thickness, as the operation is done at a distance from the mesenteric border. 
Here the joint can be made perfectly tight without danger of leakage. In 
choosing a button for this work, an exigent examination must be made 
of the spring and the screw-thread to make certain they are perfect. This 
is especially true when the button has been previously used. It is to be 
remembered that this instrument stays in place at least eight days, and 
usually much longer. Its transit through the small intestine is attended 
with vigorous peristaltic action and thus renders the convalescence rather 

The Harrington Segmented Ring 1 and the Robson Decalcified 

1 Harrington, F. B. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, November 6, 1902. 



Bone Bobbin 1 are constructed upon the same principle, their object being 
to gain speed, without sacrificing the advantages of the seromuscular 
stitch. Both of these instruments are reduced in size before they pass on, — 
the ring by segmentation, the bobbin by solution. For this reason they 
cause no discomfort from increased peristalsis. The ring is made of hard 
aluminum in four sections. These sections are jointed firmly together by 
a small bar of steel which has a shoulder and a screw-thread, and which 
serves as a handle. The outer surfaces of the ring are grooved to hold the ends 
of the intestines, which are tied in place by catgut purse-string sutures. The 
segments fit together by means of sliding tongue-and-groove joints so rounded 
that they will not cut or catch in the tissues. The ring is made in three sizes. 

t inch 


Wt. oj individual segments 

\ inch 

io grains 

5 « 

20 " 

5 " 


3° " 

The bobbin, as described by Robson, 2 is "nothing more than a cylinder 
of decalcified bone with raised ends." It is made in many sizes for adap- 

Fig. 105. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Harrington Segmented Ring. 
Actual size of smallest ring. 

tation to a large variety of operations, from cholecystenterostomy to end- 
to-end suture of the large intestine. Although the bone bobbin is a suc- 

1 Robson, A. W. Mayo. Brit. Med. Journal, 1893, April 1, 1, 688, 689; Se"m. MeU, Paris, 
1892, xn, 485. 

2 Robson, A. W. Mayo, and Moynihan. Surgical Treatment of Diseases of the Stomach, 
1904, p. 233. 

Fig. 106. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Harrington's Segmented Ring. 
Purse-strings, one tied, about ring. Mattress mesenteric stitch loosely placed. 

Fig. 107. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Harrington's Segmented Ring. 
Continuous seromuscular suture around circumference of joint. 




cessful device, yet the necessity of keeping it in alcohol renders it rather 
inconvenient to carry about. The segmented ring can be carried in the 
layout with the other instruments and boiled (Fig. 105). 
Steps for the Ring and the Bobbin : 

(1) Purse-strings. 

(2) Resection. 

(3) Mattress mesenteric stitch. 

(4) Introduction of instrument. 

(5) Tying of purse-strings. 

(6) Tying of mesenteric stitch. 

(7) Continuous seromuscular stitch about joint. 

(8) Removal of handle (ring). 

(9) Approximation of cut mesenteric edges. 

The first two steps are identical with the beginning of the button technic ; 
but, with these instruments, we are able to fasten the mesenteric borders 
of the gut securely by means of the Maunsell mattress stitch, described in 
the plain suture and elsewhere. This stitch is placed immediately after 
the resection has been done, and is loosely tied with a half -knot to save 
time later. The material for this stitch should be No. o chromic gut. After 
the mesenteric stitch is placed, the device is slipped into the ends of the open 
bowels, and the purse-strings tied (Fig. 106). The mesenteric stitch is then 
made fast, thus completing the preliminary steps of the operation. The 
mainstay of the suture is the seromuscular continuous stitch. This brings 
the circumference of the bowels together and turns in the edges which are 
bound down to the instrument (Fig. 107). 

In employing his bobbin for lateral anastomosis Robson does not use 
a purse-string, a method which is applicable to end-to-end union. In 
this technic one-half of the outer seromuscular stitch is first placed. The 
cut edges are then sewed together from the inside with a continuous catgut 
stitch, leaving just enough room for the introduction of the bobbin. When 
the bobbin has been slipped into the lumen the through-and-through con- 
tinuous catgut stitch is carried over the front and tied, after which the sero- 
muscular stitch is taken up and the peritoneum closed over the last half of 
the circumference. 




It is occasionally difficult, or even impossible, to suture two cut in- 
testinal ends in continuity. Such is frequently the case when it becomes 
necessary to anastomose the ileum to the colon after resection. At other 
times the character of the operation demands that the intestines be joined 
side by side, or else by planting the end of one into the side of another. 
As a preliminary step to the lateral anastomosis, a safe method is required 
for closing the cut ends. Two methods are given: 

(i) Suture in two layers (old). 

(2) Purse-string. 

rfW 9 

Fig. 108. — End-to-end Anastomosis, Robson's Decalcified Bone Bobbin. 
Two layers of sutures : inner, purse-string; outer, seromuscular. The outer stitch is in reality continu- 
ous, although shown diagrammatically as interrupted. 


This is the classical technic. It is slightly modified here by the addition 
of the reversed mattress stitch. This method is especially indicated in 
closing in the large intestine, since the edge turned in is a very narrow one. 
The purse-string, or second method, may be used on the large intestine 
when plenty of leeway can be left between the puckered end and the second 
joint; otherwise the routine suture in two layers should be adopted. 

Steps : 

(1) Clamps, and resection. 

(2) Continuous inner stitch to bowel and mesentery. 

(3) Interrupted mattress stitch to peritoneum. 


J 59 

The clamps are applied and the resection done as usual. The intestine 
is closed with two layers of stitches. The inner is a continuous through- 
and-through suture, which starts at the free edge of the bowel, and approxi- 

Fig. 109. — Formation of Blind End (old). 
Inner continuous Glover's stitch to bowel and mesenteric edges. 

mates the cut edges from above downwards. When the mesentery is 
reached the stitch is continued down over it, thus securing any small vessels 
which have been cut during the resection (Fig. 109). The outer sero- 

Fig. no. — Formation of Blind End (old). 
Outer layer of reversed mattress stitches. 

muscular layer of stitches may be either interrupted or continuous. A 
strong close approximation is obtained by applying the reversed mattress 
stitch, as shown in Fig. no. 



This operation has been developed and improved by various American 
surgeons. The originators of the technic were Doyen, 1 Bardenheuer, 2 
Winiwarter, 3 and others. This is a very rapid and safe method. Its main 
disadvantage consists in the wide edge of bowel which is invaginated by 
the purse-string. In situations where the width of the turned-in edge is 
of no consequence the technic is perfectly satisfactory. It is commonly 
used for closing the duodenum after pylorectomy (Mayo). 

Steps : 

(i) Purse-string suture. 

(2) Clamp. 

(3) Resection. 

(4) Cut edges sewed with through-and-through catgut suture. 

(5) Clamp removed. 

(6) Invagination of sewed-over cut edges, with tying of purse- 


(7) Interrupted stitches to end of bowel. 

If possible, the purse-string should be placed before opening the bowel. 
In this instance an insoluble stitch is desirable because the purse-string is 
the mainstay of the joint and is used to bring together the serous coats. A 
clamp is now placed across the intestine, about one-quarter inch from purse- 
string, on the side of the proposed resection. For this purpose a straight 
half-length clamp is usually large enough, although sometimes a longer 
clamp may be necessary. The jaws are not protected by rubber, as the 
portion of the bowel grasped by them will be turned in. The intestine is 
next cut away with scissors, leaving an edge of one-quarter inch attached 
to the clamp. In order to add security against an accident to the purse- 
string and to control the bleeding, the cut edges are sewed together with 
a through-and-through soluble stitch extending from the free edge well 
down over the triangular mesenteric space (Fig. in). 

The clamp is now removed and the circumference of the bowel grasped 

■'.Doyen. Chirurgen Congress Verhandlungen, 1898, p. 200. 

2 Bardenheuer. Experimented Beitrage zur Abdominal-Chirurgie, Inaugural Dissertation, 
1888, p. 68. 

3 Winiwarter. Verhandlungen der Deutsch. Gesellsch. fiir Chirurgie, 1891, I, 133. 



with the left hand, while the right invaginates the sewed-over cut edges 
with forceps. When the rough edges have been tucked in in this manner 
the purse-string is drawn tight and tied by the assistant, thus closing the 









Fig. ii i. -Formation of Blind End. Fig . 1 I2 ._ The sewed-over cut edges 
Fig. in shows purse-string in position with ends have been invaginated, and the purse- 
lightly tied in a half-knot. The cut intestinal end is string tied. Note how the mesentery is 
grasped between the jaws of a clamp while the edges are drawn up into the dimple; also note the 
sewed together with an over-and-over stitch through all reinforcing interrupted stitches (seromus- 
coats. cular). 

Fio. 113. — Formation of a Blind End. Cross section. 

bowel end. The tightening of the purse-string draws up part of the cut 
edge of the mesentery, and thus fills the dimple resulting from the pucker- 
ing-in with a thick plug of fat. As an extra precaution, a few seromuscular 
stitches are added. When a lateral anastomosis is to be done (by Abbe's 


method *) the two cut ends must be closed by the above technic ; when an 
end-to-side, only one blind end need be made (Figs. 112, 113). 

This operation consists in joining two intestinal coils, or the intestine 
and the stomach side by side, with the establishment of a fistulous opening 
between the attached organs. It was devised for the purpose of conducting 
the intestinal stream around an obstruction when resection was contrain- 
dicated. It is now used for many conditions where no obstruction is present. 
The following are the methods used for performing the lateral anastomosis : 

(1) Plain suture. 

(2) Mattress suture. 

(3) Mechanical devices. 

(a) Jaboulay's button; ring; bobbin. 

(b) McGraw rubber ligature. 

This is considered the safest and best technic. 
Steps : 

(1) Clamps. 

(2) First seromuscular stitch. 

(3) Intestine opened. 

(4) Through-and-through continuous stitch. 

(5) Seromuscular stitch continued over front of joint. 

A fold, about three inches long, is picked up] on the free edge of the 
bowel with the fingers of the left hand. The clamp pinches in this fold, 
with care to include only just enough to allow the suture to be done. The 
constant secretion of mucous from the inside of the opened gut makes 
it desirable to have as little as possible of the mucous membrane exposed 
during the operation. If the cut bowel ends" have been previously turned 
in, the clamps should allow a good margin, to avoid contusion of the closed 
ends (Fig. 114). 

The actual suture is done in two layers: (1) the inner continuous, 
through-and-through of all coats, and (2) the outer seromuscular. It is 

1 Abbe. MedicaljRecord, 1892, Vol. xli, p. 365. 



more convenient to place the first half of the seromuscular stitch before 
opening the bowel, for, in this manner, the two coils are steadied together, 
while opening the gut and placing the inner stitches. The first continuous 
stitch is placed longitudinally, about one-fourth inch from the free edge 
of the bowel extending over a distance of about four inches. The thread 
is left long at each end of the suture, especially at the last knot, since this 
long end is to be used later to cover in the front of the joint. The incisions 
into the bowels are made longitudinally, and exactly opposite the mesen- 
teric borders. The cuts are best made with long, free strokes of the knife, 
and should be about one-eighth inch shorter at each end than the first con- 

Fig. 114. — Lateral Intestinal Anastomosis. 
Note the position of the clamps in relation to the closed ends. Also note the method of attaching 
the cut mesenteric edges. The remaining technic for the lateral anastomosis will be shown under 

tinuous stitch. A margin of one-fourth inch is to be kept laterally, between 
this stitch and the bowel incision. During the operation, the bleeding 
from the cut edges is prevented by the clamps, and, to control this upon 
their removal and strengthen the suture, the cut edges are sewed together 
with a continuous No. o chromic stitch. The details of placing the inner 
through-and-through stitch are to be found under the technic of posterior 
gastroenterostomy. The conclusion of the stitch is accomplished by 
invaginating the continuous chromic stitch with an outer layer of sero- 
muscular stitches, which is continued over the front by the long end left 
from the first outside stitch. 



In performing lateral anastomosis by means of Connell's mattress 
method the technic described for the end-to-end anastomosis is followed 
as closely as possible. 

Steps : 

(1) Clamps. 

(2) Intestine opened on either side at once. 

(3) Three mattress stitches to incision angle. 

(4) Interrupted mattress stitches to circumference. 

The clamps should be first applied in the long axis of the bowels, in 
the manner adopted for the plain suture. When the clamps are placed in 
this way it is much easier to open the intestine, as the folds are held in 
exactly the proper position. The intestinal incisions are made as usual, 
with long sweeps of the knife down to the mucosa, when scissors are sub- 
stituted for the knife to cut away the redundant mucous membrane. The' 
removal of the redundant mucous membrane is fully illustrated under the 
technic of Finney's gastroduodenostomy. In beginning the suture three 
mattress stitches are placed at one angle of the wound, the upper of the 
three being left long to mark the point of ending after the whole circum- 
ference has been closed in. Interrupted stitches are next placed across 
the base line from one incision angle to the other, thus joining the cut edges. 
When the second angle is reached the stitch is left long to be used as a guide 
in sewing the second portion of the circumference. Up to this time guides 
have not been required because the clamps have held the edges in apposition. 
The eversion of the anterior cut edges is more difficult in lateral than in 
end-to-end anastomosis, and cannot be accomplished without changing 
the clamps. The intestinal openings are carefully filled with gauze, and 
the contents stripped back with the fingers for a distance of three or four 
inches, at which point the clamp is reapplied at a right angle to the axis 
of the gut. When no obstruction is present, in either of the attached coils, 
four clamps will be needed to prevent leakage from the bowel lumen, one 
above, and one below the opening into each intestine. To approach the 
second portion of the circumference a mattress guide is introduced into 
the anterior cut edges at a point half way between the incision angles, in 


a manner exactly similar to that described for the end-to-end union. The 
gauze is removed from the bowel lumina and the long ends of the stitch 
left at the second incision angle are passed under the anterior guide and 
are gently drawn tight. The mucous membrane is thus turned inside 
out and held by drawing the two guides steadily apart. In everting this 
second portion of the circumference great care must be exercised to avoid 
tearing the stitches out of the tissues, because the counter pull of the clamps 
and of the attached intestines is often difficult to overcome. The com- 
pletion of the anastomosis is a repetition of the end-to-end technic. The 
everted portion of the circumference is sewed together and replaced, after 
which the gap remaining is brought together by interrupted mattress 
stitches which are apparently reserved. The last stitch is placed from 
the outside. The continuous mattress stitch has been favored by M. E. 
Connell 1 for lateral union, but, although more rapid, it is less safe than 
the interrupted method on account of the danger of slipping. 


(a) Jaboulay's button; ring; bobbin. 

(b) McGraw rubber ligature. 

Jaboulay's Button. 2 — This mechanical device, which is constructed 
in a general way upon the principle of the Murphy button, has been used 
with apparently good results, for some years, in the clinic of Jaboulay in 
Lyons. The reference given is Jaboulay's most recent description of 
the button. The experimental work done by Beer 3 with the Jaboulay 
button does not support the claims made by the inventor of the instrument. 
Beer describes the mechanism of the button as follows: "Each half is 
made up of two cylinders, an outer and an inner. The outer is perforated 
with drainage holes, just as in the Murphy button, though the openings 
are of different contour. At one point in the outer cylinder there is a 
distinct break in the continuity of this cylinder ; this gap or slit is prolonged 
into the inner cylinder, and continues almost half way around the inner 
cylinder. It measures, in a 22-millimeter size button, approximately one- 

1 Connell, M. E. Medical Record, 1892, Vol. xlh, p. 335; Journal Am. Med. Asso., 1893, 
Vol. xxi, p. 150; North Am. Practitioner, September, 1898. 
" Jaboulay. Medizinsche Klinik, March 12, 1905. 
3 Beer, E. Annals of Surgery, November, 1905. 


eight of the diameter of the button. It is vertical in the outer cylinder, 
running through its entire thickness; whereas, in the inner cylinder, it is 
at first vertical, corresponding to the slit in the outer cylinder, but very 
shortly bends at right angles, and runs, as said before, almost half-way 
around the inner cylinder. In this slit the Jaboulay idea is concentrated. 
By means of this slit the button can be introduced into the lumen of the 
bowel through a small opening. Naturally the same slit arrangement 
is present in the male and female halves of the button, and these fasten 
into each other by means of a screw thread arrangement, somewhat similar 
to the mechanism of the Murphy button. As the outer cylinder has been 
interrupted, by the slit which runs through it, to obtain approximation of 
the two pieces of bowel at this point when the buttons are driven home, 
Jaboulay had to prolong the mesial margins of the outer cylinder, — *. e., 
the margins which come in contact with each other when the buttons are 
approximated, otherwise there would be leakage at this point. The 
prolongation of this margin is in the form of a thin, elongated metal plate, 
which acts like a weak spring in closing the slit in the upper or mesial 
border of the cylinder. The extra cylinder of the Murphy button, which 
works on a spring and whose function is to force and hold the two apposed 
serosa surfaces against each other, and eventually produce their necrosis, 
is not used in the Jaboulay button. In this button the apposition and 
subsequent necrosis are produced by the operator's forcing the two halves 
>of the button very firmly together." 
Steps : 

(i) Clamps. 

(2) Bowel incisions one centimeter long. 

(3) Introduction of button halves. 

(4) Joint snapped together. 

The presence of a longitudinal groove through the flanges of the button 
halves allows them to be put in sidewise. The halves are held separately 
with artery forceps, as is usual with the Murphy button, and the edge of 
the intestinal cut slipped into the slit in the side of the flange. By rotating 
the button, it will screw itself into the intestinal lumen through an opening 
which has a diameter much smaller than the largest part of the button. 
Jaboulay steadies the cut edges of the opening with forceps, while twisting 

Fig. 115. — Lateral Anastomosis with Jabotjlay's Button. 
One-half of button being turned into intestinal opening, the portion of the flange already within the 

lumen showing faintly through. 

Fig. 116. — Lateral Anastomosis with Jabotjlay's Button. 
Both halves of the button are in place, ready to be snapped together. Note absence of purse-strings . 



the button into position. The two halves are finally snapped together 
forcibly and the joint thus completed (Figs. 115, 116). Beer did not find, 
experimentally, that a button 22 millimeters in diameter could be screwed 
into an opening one centimeter long without tearing the bowel. He 
reports that eighteen tears in the serosa resulted from introducing twenty- 
eight button halves, all of which required sutures to close the rents. In 
no instance, however, did the mucosa prolapse through these rips, as it 
does through the larger incisions used for the Murphy button technic. 
Beer saw no bad results from the tearing or stretching of the opening, 
but regards the contrivance as inferior to the Murphy button. 

In summarizing his experiments, Beer states that the Jaboulay button 
actually offers an increase in speed over the Murphy button, but two min- 
utes being required for the technic. The small intestinal incision, though 
of advantage in doing away with sutures, results in tears of the bowel wall. 
Finally, the halves must be driven home with great force in order to insure 
necrosis of the included tissues, although, even then, the button frequently 
becomes so fixed in the joint that it is not passed. The Jaboulay button 
has been little used in this country, and the results of experimental work 
are discouraging. The technic is described here without advice as to its 

The Harrington Ring. — This technic differs in no particular from 
the end-to-end method, with the single exception of the omission of the 
mesenteric stitch. The placing of the purse-string for lateral anastomosis 
is shown in Fig. 58. Harrington puts in the first half of the seromuscular 
stitch before opening the bowel. 

Steps : 

(1) Purse-string. 

(2) First half of seromuscular stitch. 

(3) Bowels opened, ring introduced. 

(4) Second half of seromuscular stitch. 

With this method the exposure of the field of operation to infection from 
the opened intestine is reduced to its minimum time. The purse-strings 
are placed at the desired points, with both arms of the loop parallel and 
about one-fourth inch apart. The bowels are next attached with a sero- 
muscular stitch which projects a short distance over each end of the purse- 


strings. The incisions are then made and the ring slipped into the lumina, 
where it is fastened in place by tying the purse-strings. The seromuscular 
stitch is finally carried around the remainder of the circumference, and 
the joint thus completed. The removal of the handle is done at the last 
moment, just before the last stitch is taken, and the hole left is covered by 
the outer continuous stitch. 

The Robson Bone Bobbin. — This device has been previously described. 
In lateral anastomosis the use of the button is merely a slight elaboration 
over the customary method of suture in two layers. 

Steps : 

(1) Clamps. 

(2) First half of seromuscular stitch. 

(3) Incisions. 

(4) Inner through-and-through stitch. 

(5) Bobbin introduced. 

(6) Second half of seromuscular stitch. 

The placing of the clamps in the long axis of the viscus, the seromuscular 
continuous stitch, the incisions, the inner through-and-through continuous 
stitch, are all done in the routine manner. Before closing in the front of 
the joint, with the inner through-and-through stitch, a bone bobbin of the 
proper size is introduced, and the inner stitch closed over it. The outer 
continuous seromuscular stitch is taken up again and used to bury the 
portions of the inner stitch which are still uncovered. 

The McGraw Rubber Ligature.— The use of the rubber ligature for 
the lateral anastomosis of hollow viscera has become identified with the 
name of McGraw. Although the actual originator of the method was 
J. M. Gaston, 1 it was the practical technic of McGraw which brought the 
method into favor. Since McGraw's first article appeared 2 there have been 
various minor improvements suggested, all of which were summarized by 
F. T. Murphy 3 in a paper which contains several useful original details. 
The technic described below is, substantially, that recommended by Mc- 
Graw and by Murphy. The ligature is made in three sizes : large, 5 mm. ; 

1 Gaston, J. M. Atlanta Med. and Surg. Journal, 1884-5, v °l- h PP- 336, 385; Ibid., 1885-6, 
Vol. n, pp. 395, 533- 

2 McGraw. Journal Am. Med. Asso., 1891, Vol. xvi, p. 685. 

3 Murphy, F. T. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, January 28, 1904. 


medium, 4 mm.; small, 3 mm. The largest size is very much stronger 
than the others, and cuts out rapidly, but the medium size (4 mm.) is pref- 
erable on account of its elasticity. Ochsner prefers the smallest size. 
The needle which McLean 1 has devised to hold the ligature has rendered 
the technic simpler (Fig. 117). This needle is made in several sizes. In 
place of an eye a hook is substituted at one end, over which the ligature 
is stretched and caught. The rubber is prevented from slipping off by a 
movable ferrule which is forced down over the ligature as it is held by the 
hook, thus tightly joining the end of the ligature to the needle. The size 
of the ligature must be carefully chosen so that the ferrule cannot work 

Fig. 117. — McLean Needle for the Rubber Ligature. 
Enlarged in diameter. Method of attaching the ligature to the needle. 

loose. One case has been reported where the ferrule slipped down over 
the rubber with unfortunate results. 2 

The limitations in the use of the McGraw ligature are not well defined. 
It has been used with success in cholecystenterostomy, gastroenterostomy, 
and in lateral intestinal anastomoses, and is a rapid and safe method, even 
in patients of poor vitality. There has been a prevailing opinion that it 
is a dangerous technic to employ in bad subjects, or in tissues of poor 
vitality. The Mayos 3 and Ochsner, 4 however, have had excellent results 
with the elastic ligature in gastroenterostomy. W. J. Mayo states that 
the ligature will cut through in patients with poor resistance, if the tissues 

1 McLean. Journal Mich. Med. Soc, Detroit, 1903, 11, 550. 

2 McGraw. Journal of the Michigan State Med. Society, August, 1904. 

3 Mayo, W. J. Annals of Surgery, November, 1905. 

4 Ochsner. Journal of the American Medical Asso., October 21, 1905. 


have even a small vitality, but that when the intestinal or the gastric walls 
have lost the power to produce an inflammatory reaction, the ligature will 
not cause a slough of the tissues within its grasp. One of the great recom- 
mendations of the rubber ligature is the short time required for its intro- 
duction; Mayo finds that twelve minutes are sufficient for a gastroenter- 
ostomy, while McGraw 1 has performed this operation in three minutes. 
In comparing this with other methods of gastroenterostomy, in cases of 
patients with poor resistance, Mayo expresses a feeling that there is more 
danger of uncircumscribed slough or infection when the Murphy button 
or the suture in layers is used than when the ligature technic is adopted. 

The two objections commonly advanced against the use of the elastic 
ligature are the following: (r) In the process of freeing itself by pressure- 
necrosis of the included tissues, from three to five days are demanded, during 
which period the advantages attributed to the immediate drainage following 
suture and certain mechanical operations are lost. McGraw argues, 
however, that patients are not able to avail themselves of the new channel 
until after a lapse of from two to three days, on account of gastric irritability 
and refusal of the stomach or intestine to contract, in the presence of an 
injury to its walls. The experience of Dr. McGraw is not wholly corrobo- 
rated by that of other operators who have been successful in feeding patients 
on the day following the operation, where the anastomosis was made with 
sutures. (2) The second objection raised has to do with inaccurate technic. 
In a certain number of cases, as pointed out by McGraw himself, 2 the 
needle may not enter the lumen of the bowel but may turn before freeing 
itself of the mucosa, an error which is alluded to later in the technical 
description. When such a condition exists, a portion of the mucous mem- 
brane will not be grasped by the rubber band. As a result, when the 
ligature has contracted as far as possible, it will be held in place by a bridge 
of uncrushed tissue, which will prevent the subsequent discharge of the 
ligature. This is a fault in technic which is easily avoided by plunging 
the point of the needle well into the cavity of the organ before gathering 
the fold on the needle. 

Although this method of anastomosis has not been accepted as adapt- 

1 McGraw. New York Med. Journal, January 26, 1001. 

2 McGraw. Journal Am. Med. Asso., May 16, 1891. 


able to all lateral anastomoses, it has a recognized place in gastrointestinal 
surgery. The method should not be employed to make a pyloroplasty or 
a cholecystenterostomy. 1 
Steps : 

(1) Clamps omitted. 

(2) Preliminary continuous seromuscular stitch. 

(3) Rubber ligature knotted in middle and threaded at both ends. 

(4) Needle introduced into lumen, picking up longitudinal fold 

of bowel 2§ to 3 inches long. 

(5) Ligature put on stretch and pulled through to knot in middle; 

same process repeated in second coil. 

(6) Two ends tied in square knot and held with silk while first 

line of sutures is depressed with forceps. 

(7) Front and ends buried with interrupted stitches. 

Clamps are not necessary because the only openings made in the bowels 
are plugged by the ligature. The two coils are first fastened in place with 
a seromuscular stitch, to steady the suture in a manner exactly similar to 
that adopted for the plain lateral anastomosis. Murphy found that the cut- 
ting out of the ligature advanced more rapidly under the knot, and, for this 
reason, advises that a second knot be placed at the other extremity of the 
suture. This is done by tying a half-knot in the middle of the ligature 
after which both ends are threaded. The point of one of the needles is 
introduced into the lumen of the bowel at a right angle to the axis of the 
gut. The operator must make certain that the point is free of the mucous 
membrane before turning, else the ligature cannot completely cut out the 
fold. The needle is now turned and pushed up the lumen until it has 
gathered a longitudinal fold of bowel about three inches long, when 
the point escapes from the bowel as nearly as possible at a right angle 
with the wall. The needle is grasped with artery forceps while the ligature 
is held by the knot in the left hand. By separating the hands the rubber 
is put on the stretch and is pulled through to the knot, an assistant wiping 
away with a moist sponge the intestinal contents which are brought out 
on the needle and the ligature. After repeating this manoeuvre on the 
second coil, the ends are ready to be knotted (Fig. 118). 

1 Ochsner. Journal of the American Medical Asso., October 21, 1905. 



To prevent including the preliminary continuous stitch in the knot, 
this suture is depressed with forceps, and the ends of the rubber ligature 
tied in a half-knot over a piece of strong silk (Fig. 119). While the operator 

Fig. 118. — Lateral Anastomosis by theMcGraw Ligature. 
The first seromuscular stitch has been placed. The rubber ligature has been introduced with 
two needles. Note knot on left (Murphy) in middle of rubber ligature to increase the speed of the 

holds the ligature ends tight, the silk is tied over the front in a square knot, 
thus securing the rubber from slipping. The second half of the knot is 
completed in the same manner as the first half. After tying the rubber 
ligature it will be noticed that the longitudinal folds which it grasps are 
puckered into a number of wrinkles. This puckering will, later, flatten 
out when the ligature cuts through, if the front and ends are buried in with 
interrupted stitches (Fig. 120). It is probable that a continuous stitch 
does not allow complete relaxation of the wrinkles when it is used to bury 
in the front, and may thus partly constrict the opening. The complete 
cutting through of the ligature requires from four to five days. It is neces- 
sary to tie the rubber as tightly as possible, because, if loosely done, the 
rubber will stop cutting before it has freed itself, and leave two holes instead 
of one free opening (Figs. 121, 122). 

Fig. 119. — Lateral Anastomosis by the McGraw Ligature. 
The ligature is being drawn taut, thus dragging the two knots together. Note method of depress- 
ing the first seromuscular suture with the blunt end of forceps. Note position of silk tie which is to 
secure the knot in the rubber ligature from slipping. 


Fig. 120. — Lateral Anastomosis by the McGraw Ligature. 
This shows the three stages of the technic. On the right the first seromuscular continuous stitch 
is visible, while, to its left, the intestine is puckered up by the rubber ligature, which has been tied tight 
and cut close. On the extreme left are seen the interrupted seromuscular stitches with which the whole 
front of the joint will be closed in. 





(Author's Method.) 1 
After resection of the ileocecal valve, and certain other operations, the 

Fig. 121. — Lateral Anastomosis. 
A cross section of the anastomosis, McGraw ligature. 

m ' 4k ' i% 

Fig. 122. — Lateral Anastomosis by the McGraw Ligature. 

From a photograph to show the actual opening made by means of the elastic ligature between the stomach 

and jejunum. Specimen taken from cat. (Murphy.) 

ileum is anastomosed to the large intestine. A lateral anastomosis is very 
effective (Abbe) ; 2 but it requires the closure of two blind ends. The end- 

1 Gould, A. H. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, December 29, 1904. 

2 Abbe. Medical Record, 1892, Vol. xli, p. 365. 


Fig. 123. — End-to-side Anastomosis (Author). 
Shows the method of application of the first mattress stitch. The dotted line on the small intestine 
indicates the line at which corners will be cut off. The small dots on the edges of large and small bowels 
show the points where the first two guides are placed. 

Fig. 124. — End-to-side Anastomosis (Author). 
The first mattress stitch has been tied and the first two guides pulled tight. The mesenteric third 
of the circumference of the small intestine has been approximated to a symmetrical portion of the distal 
edges of the cut into the colon, by an over-and-over stitch. The third guide has been loosely introduced 
to show the correct position. 

Fig. 125. — End-to-side Anastomosis (Author). 
The suture is nearly completed, the seromuscular layers being approximated by a new mattress stitch. 
Old mattress A brought to A. New mattress B brought to A. 

to-side operation implants the cut end of the small intestine into the side 
of the colon. The following technic was worked out on animals: 
Steps : 

(1) Clamps. 

(2) Ileum resected obliquely. 

(3) Incision into colon. 

(4) Mesenteric border of ileum fastened into distal angle of cut in 

colon, by a mattress stitch. 

(5) Guides develop mesenteric border. 

(6) Through-and-through stitch of all coats. 

(7) Interrupted seromuscular stitch, either reversed mattress, or 


(8) Cut mesenteric edge attached to colon, or adjoining structure. 
The application of the clamps is not shown in the drawings. The small 
intestine should be clamped at a right angle, about three inches above 
the cut end, while the clamps on the large intestine are also placed at a 
right angle, a short distance to either side of the incision. The open small 
intestine to be implanted is first split along its free border, for one-half 
inch to an inch (Fig. 123), and the corners which project are trimmed 
down with scissors, so that an oblique opening is left, with edges rounded 
out near the mesenteric border. The reason for rounding the edges at the 
mesenteric border, instead of cutting them straight, is that it allows more 
tissue for sewing at this point. The receiving intestine is opened on its 
free edge for about one and one-half inches, and the distal end of this cut 
fastened by a mattress stitch to the mesenteric border of the entering bowel. 




a2 3- 








Guides are placed, with the ends inside, to invert the cut edges and expose 
the mesenteric third of the entering bowel, side by side with a symmetrical 
portion of the cut edges of the receiving bowel (Fig. 124). The remainder 
of the suture is finished exactly as in the plain end-to-end anastomosis. 
The author's mattress or the interrupted Lembert stitches are both useful 
for the seromuscular layer (Figs. 125 and 126). The cut edge of the 
mesentery of the small intestine is finally attached by interrupted stitches 
to the colon and the posterior abdominal wall, if possible, to avoid hernia 
of the intestines beneath the arch. The degree of obliquity at which the 
small bowel is attached to the large is not fixed. The adaptation of the 

Fig. 126. — End-to-side Anastomosis. 
Cross section. 

mattress mesenteric stitch to this technic requires that a wider edge be 
turned in at the distal angle of the wound, where this stitch is attached, 
than necessary for the rest of the circumference, just as has been noted in 
the plain end-to-end anastomosis. To counteract the pull made by this 
stitch, the entering bowel must be cut slightly on the oblique, and this will 
leave the two intestines fastened at right angle when the suture is com- 
pleted. The old method of attaching the end to the side by the technic of 
lateral anastomosis occasionally leads to stricture formation, and, on this 
account, it is safer to give the entering bowel a more oblique attachment 
than would be absolutely necessary to overcome the pull of the mesenteric 


stitch, thus forming an opening which has a larger caliber than that of the 
entering bowel. 

If the steps of this operation are followed carefully, a joint will be 
obtained which will be as strong and as safe as the plain end-to-end or the 
lateral anastomoses ; while on the other hand, the danger from sepsis and 
prolonged time-requirement will be minimized. 


By colostomy is meant the establishment of an artificial opening into 
some part of the colon. This opening may be either permanent or tempo- 
rary, and the technic is modified according to the permanency of the opening 
desired. There are two methods of approaching the colon for purposes of 
drainage, — extra- or intraperitoneal. The extraperitoneal route is called 
lumbar colostomy, an operation which was formerly regarded with great 
favor on account of its avoidance of the peritoneal cavity, but which has 
now fallen into disuse. It is said to be indicated in cases where the sigmoid 
flexure has a short mesentery, or is otherwise bound down to the posterior 
abdominal wall. According to Treves, 1 a mesocolon may be expected on 
the left side in thirty-six per cent, of all cases, and on the right side in twenty- 
six per cent. In view of these facts it is evident that it would not be possible 
to open the colon, extraperitoneally, in a large number of cases. Improve- 
ments in aseptic technic have removed the chief indications for the lumbar 
route, allowing the bowel to be approached directly through the peritoneal 
cavity. Lumbar colostomy has, for the above reasons, been omitted from 
the list of operations to be described. 

In the great majority of cases, colostomy for disease of the lower sig- 
moid or rectum, or both, is done in the left inguinal region; but, in case of 
involvement of the colon higher up, the transverse colon may be opened 
in the median line, or, if necessary, the ascending colon in the right inguinal 
region, always above the diseased section of bowel. 2 The location of the 
incision for inguinal colostomy is not regarded at present to be of great 
importance, provided that it is made below the level of the umbilicus, be- 
tween the outer edge of the rectus muscle and a point at least one inch 

1 Treves, F. Applied Anatomy, 1892, p. 346. 

2 Gant, S. G. American Medicine, June 24, 1905. 



internal to the anterior superior spine of the left ilium. The operations to 
be described are the following: 
Permanent Colostomy. 

(1) Left inguinal. 

(2) Anterior. 
Temporary Colostomy. 

(1) Rubber ligature. 

(2) Glass drainage tube. 

■ ' 




Fig. 127. — Left Inguinal Colostomy. 
Line of incision. 


(Allingham, Maydl, Gant.) 

GantV accepts Allingham's 3 technic as the most reliable. He combines 
it with Maydl's 3 muscle-splitting operation, as follows : 

1 Gant, S. G. Diseases of the Rectum and Anus. 

2 Allingham. Brit. Med. Journal, 1892, 1, p. 1013. 

3 Maydl. Cent, fiir Chir., 1888, No. 24. 

1 84 


Steps : 

(i) Incision, muscle-layers separated. 

(2) Sigmoid withdrawn from the abdomen. 

(3) Mesosigmoid drawn taut and made fast with stitch. 

(4) Circumference of bowel attached to skin. 

(5) Dressing, resection after adhesions have formed. 

The skin incision is made nearly at right angles to an imaginary line, 
drawn between the navel and the anterior superior spine of the left ilium 

Fig. 128. — Left Inguinal Colostomy. 
Method of placing stitches. 1. Mesenteric stitch; 2, Anchor stitch at either angle of wound. 

(Fig. 127). This cut is about two and one-half inches long and is placed 
two inches to the inner side of the iliac spine, one-third of the incision being 
above, and two-thirds below the line just mentioned. The three muscle- 
layers are separated in the lines of cleavage of their fibers (Maydl) and the 
abdomen entered through an opening of about one and one-half inches. 

The sigmoid is next located, and the length of its mesentery determined 
at once. Occasionally, the mesentery is very short, or absent, when it is 
not possible to bring the bowel far enough forward to employ this technic 
with success. The loop is pulled upward until the afferent and the efferent 



arms are taut (Allingham), in order to forestall the possibility of prolapse. 
To form the spur, and prevent the intestine from slipping back into the 
abdomen, an insoluble or a chromic-gut stitch is introduced, as follows: 
While the loop is still taut, the needle is thrust through the skin in the 
middle of and about half an inch from the edge of the lower lip of the wound. 

Fig. 129. — Left Inguinal Colostomy. 
Coils drawn together by mesenteric stitch. Interrupted stitches attaching bowel to skin. 

After penetrating the skin, the needle picks up a bite of the afferent arm 
of the loop under the mesenteric attachment. The stitch then crosses 
behind the mesentery, and is passed through the mesenteric attachment of 
the efferent loop, whence it penetrates the skin again, and is tied to the first 
end (Fig. 128). In tying the stitch just described, the two arms of the loop 
are drawn together, thus forming an efficient spur. The skin incision 
is next closed in, at either end, with interrupted stitches, until it fits the 



bowel snugly on all sides, after which a row of interrupted catgut stitches 
fastens the bowel to the skin. At either angle of the incision the catgut 
stitch penetrates beneath the longitudinal band (Fig. 129). If sufficient 
obstruction is present to demand relief, a glass tube is attached to the coil 
in the manner shown in the next operation. The bowel is otherwise left 
without drainage until adhesions have hermetically sealed in the abdominal 
cavity. The resection is done four or five days later; Gant insists upon 
leaving from one-fourth to one-half inch free edge of bowel above the skin 

level, as accidents occasionally result 
from retraction of the bowel into the 
abdomen. The bleeding from the 
cut bowel-edges is best controlled by 
a running catgut stitch, around the 
circumference, through all coats (Fig. 


In cases where the sigmoid lies 
unopened on the surface of the abdo- 
men for several days while awaiting 
resection, great care must be taken to 
avoid compression of the coil, else 
the circulation of the intestinal con- 
tents will be impeded. The perito- 
neal surface is coated with vaselin 
or with zinc oxid powder, and this 
covered with gutta-percha tissue, to 
anticipate and prevent adhesion to 
the dressing. A wall of dressing 

is built up on all sides of the bowel, in such a manner that obstruction 

cannot result. 


(MlXTER. 1 ) 

The principle of using the rectus muscle as a sphincter to assist in the 
control of the motions has been brought out in the writings of Weir, 2 von 

1 Mixter, S. J. Unpublished Technic. 

2 Weir. Journal Amer. Med. Asso., xxxv, p. 1458. 

'A -'■{'! i (us '-,, . 

J- I- 

Fig. 130. — Left Inguinal Colostomy. 
Afferent and efferent coils amputated \ to 
\ inch above level of skin. Continuous cat- 
gut stitch about circumference of bowel. 
























~" O 

2 3 


Fig. 133. — Anterior Colostomy. 

Sigmoid withdrawn, mesentery pulled taut and incised. Rectus muscle sewed 

together between afferent and efferent coils. 



■ «H 

O. Jij 

















O 3 


10 1 



Hacker, 1 and others. The operation, presently to be described, is really 
an adaptation of AudryV method of left inguinal colostomy, although it 
was devised several years ago by Dr. Mixter, without knowledge of Audry's 
Steps : 

(i) Right-angle incision through skin and rectus fascia. 

(2) Lid of skin and fascia reflected outwards. 

(3) Separation of fibers of rectus muscle. 

(4) Peritoneum opened, loop of sigmoid withdrawn. 

(5) Mesosigmoid split at right angle to long axis of bowel. 

(6) Rectus muscle sewed together between afferent and efferent 

arms of bowel loop. 

(7) Skin flap pulled through opening in mesosigmoid and sewed 

into original position. 

(8) Glass drainage-tube fastened into coil, if obstruction is present. 

(9) Resection of loop, after four days. 

As shown in Fig. 131, the incision commences at the level of the navel and 
passes downward for about two inches, cutting skin, subcutaneous tissue, 

Fig. 136. — Cross Section of Anterior Colostomy (Horizontal). 
Section of sigmoid. Left rectus abdominis, 'at junction with oblique and transversalis muscles. Flap of 

skin and fascia. 

superficial and rectus fascia;. Tire line of this part of the cut is parallel 
to the fibers of the rectus muscle, a short distance inside of its outer border. 

1 Von Hacker. Beitrage zur Klin. Chir., xxin, 1899, p. 62S. 
' Audry. Archives prov. de Chir., 1892, Vol. 1, p. 347. 


At this point the knife turns inward, at a right angle, then downward, and 
again outward, to form three sides of a square, the length of each of which 
will be approximately two inches. The cut finally turns downward at a 
right angle for two inches, as if in continuation of the first leg of the incision, 
parallel with the fibers of the rectus. The lid of skin, subcutaneous tissue, 
superficial and anterior rectus fasciae is dissected away from the belly of 
the rectus muscle, and reflected outward (Fig. 132), after which the muscle 
fibers are separated longitudinally by blunt dissection near the outer border 
of the muscle, and the peritoneum opened. The sigmoid is withdrawn 
from the abdomen, and drawn taut as in the previous operation. The 
mesosigmoid is split at a right angle to the long axis of the bowel for a dis- 
tance of about two inches, and the cut edges of the incision held apart, 
while the middle portion of the separated rectus muscle is sewed together 
with through-and-through catgut sutures (Fig. 133). The coil of sigmoid 
now arches across the approximated portion of the rectus muscle, and under 
this arch the lid of skin and fascia is drawn, to be fastened firmly into its 
original position with two layers of interrupted stitches, one for fascia, the 
other for skin. If acute obstruction is present, drainage is established 
by inserting a right-angled Mixter l glass tube of large caliber, held in place 
with a purse-string stitch (Fig. 134). The bowel is finally dusted with zinc 
oxid powder, and covered with gutta-percha tissue to prevent the peritoneum 
from adhering to the dressing. After four or five days the dressing is re- 
moved, and the coil of sigmoid resected with scissors from a quarter to a 
half -inch above the skin, on either side, trimming the mucous membrane 
flush with retracted muscular coats. Bleeding from the cut edges of the 
bowel circumference is controlled by a continuous suture of catgut, as in 
the inguinal colostomy (Fig. 135). The proximal and the distal openings 
are now wide apart, and a satisfactory sphincter is formed by the rectus 
muscle. The separation of the bowel openings prevents feces from gaining 
access into the distal coil. The distal opening is used for washing out 
the contents which accumulate if the rectum is obstructed. Fig. 136 
shows a cross section of the operation before the resection has been done. 

1 Mixter, S. J. Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., 1895, Vol. cxxxn, p. 206. 



(McGeaw. 2 ) 

McGraw advises the following technic for resection of tumors of the 
large intestine: 
Steps : 

(1) Exploratory abdominal incision. 

(2) Withdrawal of coil involved in growth, new abdominal incision, 

if necessary. 

(3) Rubber ligature anastomosis, between afferent and efferent 

coils of loop. 

(4) Resection of growth; efferent coil closed; temporary drainage 

of afferent loop, with a glass tube. 

(5) Afferent opening shut up, after four or five days, when ligature 

has cut out; abdomen closed. 
The abdominal incision is made directly over the growth, when the latter 
can be located; otherwise, in the median line. If the incision has been 
purely exploratory, a second opening is added, immediately over the tumor, 
and the exploratory opening closed. The coil of large intestine involved 
in the growth is drawn out through the abdominal opening, and its mesentery 
palpated for glands. A lateral anastomosis is first performed, with a rubber 
ligature between the two arms of the loop, proximal and distal to, and about 
three inches distant from, the tumor (Fig. 137). The ligatured portion is 
slipped back into the abdomen, and the growth clamped off, preliminary to 
a resection. Purse-strings are placed around the circumference of the bowel 
on either side of the area to be resected, and the field of operation walled 
off with gauze. In resecting the bowel, the side distal to the growth is first 
completed, the open end of the efferent gut being turned in by Mayo's 
method. The stump, thus formed, is now tucked back into the belly, and 
the abdominal incision closed over it, up to the point of exit of the afferent 
coil. The proximal side of the diseased area is, finally, cut away, with its 
V of mesentery, leaving a safe margin, and the glass tube, slipped into the 
afferent coil, is fastened in place by tying the purse-string suture, already 
introduced. The clamp, which has held back the intestinal contents, is 

2 McGraw. Annals of Surgery, November, 1904. 



taken off, and drainage is established through the tube (Fig. 138). A few 
interrupted stitches attach the afferent coil to the skin, at its point of emer- 
gence. After four of five days the cutting out of the rubber ligature will 
be signalled by the resumption of rectal movements. When this occurs, 
the afferent loop is closed in, and replaced within the abdomen, and the 
abdominal wall sewed up over it. Fig. 139 shows the position of the anas- 
tomosis with relation to the line of the abdominal incision. Caution must 
be exercised in piercing the distended afferent loop with the rubber ligature 
that the bowel wall be not torn. 


This method is adopted to sidetrack the fecal current. It is of value 
as a preliminary step to any suture of the large intestine. Gant advises 
its use in the presence of many lesions of the lower bowel. 

Steps : 

(1) Bowel fastened to surface, as in permanent colostomy. 

(2) Insertion of glass tube, incision parallel to long axis of intestine. 
The early steps of the operation consist in fastening the gut to the surface 
of the skin. This operation, though temporary in nature, is only relatively 
so, since the colostomy is frequently kept open several months for purposes 
of treatment. The colon is fastened to the surface by the usual method, pre- 
ferably by the Allingham-Maydl-Gant technic. The glass tube is fastened 
into the bowel by means of a purse-string, the incision being made parallel 
to the long axis of the gut. Fig. 134 shows the method of inserting the 
glass tube. 



8 tfi 



5 1 

ft> % n r Jj 

M O 

B) c a 








~ - 



Fig. 139— McGraw's Colostomy with Resection. 
Line of original incision. Large intestine visible through the abdominal wall. Lateral anastomosis 

with ligature seen under incision. 





Robson and Moynihan 1 give the following indications for exploration 
of the stomach: 

i. For the removal of foreign bodies from the stomach. 

2. For the removal of foreign bodies from the lower end of the esophagus. 

3. For dilating a stricture of the esophagus. 

4. For dilating a stricture of the pylorus. 

5. For the removal of a polypus, or other tumor, projecting into the 


6. For exploration in case of intractable or bleeding ulcer. 

7. For curetting cancer of the pylorus in Bernay's operation. 

Steps : 

(1) Examination of anterior wall. 

(2) Examination of glandular groups. 

(3) Examination of posterior wall. 

(4) Walling off. 

(5) Anterior wall opened parallel to vessels, or over foreign body. 

(6) Treatment of interior, closure of stomach. 

Exploration of the stomach may be done: to remove a foreign body 
from the stomach, or from the esophagus; to dilate a stricture of the 
stomach or of the esophagus ; for treatment of special lesions, such as bleed- 
ing gastric ulcer. There is a difference of opinion about the value of 
lavage, preliminary to exploration of the stomach, although most writers agree 
that it is desirable to evacuate its contents as far as possible before operating. 

1 Robson and Moynihan. "The Surgical Treatment of Diseases of the Stomach," 
Second Edition, p. 32. 


The abdomen is entered through a free incision, and the stomach 
brought forward. The anterior wall is first examined, by inspection and 
by palpation, to locate any indurated areas. If pyloric stenosis is suspected, 
the caliber of the sphincter is gauged with the finger, a portion of the 
anterior wall being invaginated for this purpose. A thorough investi- 
gation of the glandular groups is next carried out, since ulcer, or malignant 
disease, send their metastases to pathognomonic groups. Lund 1 has pointed 
out the value of "sentinel glands" to indicate the site of ulcers of the stomach. 
A discussion of the lymphatic drainage of the stomach is included in the 
technic of pylorectomy. If the anterior wall and the pylorus are free from 
disease, the stomach is lifted forward, and its posterior wall inspected. 
Adhesions of the mesocolon to the stomach may give a clue to disease on 
the posterior wall. 

The exploration of the interior of the stomach is done through an incis- 
ion on the anterior wall. When foreign bodies or tumors are plainly palpa- 
ble, the opening is made directly over them; otherwise, the incision is 
placed in the center of the stomach parallel to the vessels. Before making 
the opening the stomach is pulled out and carefully walled off from the 
abdomen with gauze. It is possible to bring in review the whole of the 
posterior wall by inserting the hand through the gastrocolic omentum 
(Fig. 140), and pushing forward the posterior wall with the fingers. When 
the mesocolon is adherent to the posterior wall, this manoeuvre must be 
done without entering the lesser peritoneal cavity. After accomplishing 
the object desired, the stomach is closed with two layers of sutures. 


This operation consists in the establishment of a more or less permanent 
artificial gastric fistula, which has its outer opening in the abdominal wall. 
It is employed for the purpose of feeding, or for treatment in cases of ob- 
struction of the esophagus and of the cardiac end of the stomach. 

Owing to the number of operations in use, some difficulty is encountered 
in choosing the best technic. Berndt 2 states that, in establishing a gastric 

1 Lund, F. B. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 1902, Vol. cxlvi, p. 469. 

2 Berndt. Arch. f. Klin. Chir., Berlin, 1905, lxxvi, 905-916. 

Fig. 140. — Gastkotomy (modified from Cheyne and Burghard). 
The anterior wall of the stomach is held apart by retractors. The posterior wall is pressed forward by 

the lingers in the lesser peritoneal cavity. 



fistula, the technic should be adopted which allows a subsequent complete 
and spontaneous closure of the fistula, after it has served its purpose. The 
spontaneous closure of the fistula is rarely desired in the large class of cases 
of malignant obstruction for which this operation is usually demanded, so 
that this factor is of less importance than at first appears. Berndt divides 
the operations for gastrostomy into three classes : 1. Those in which a sphinc- 
ter is formed in the abdominal wall itself (Hacker, 1 Girard, 2 Ullmann, 3 and 
others) ; 2. Those in which a portion of the gastric wall is drawn out in a cone 
(Hahn, 4 Ssbanajew, 5 Franck 6 ); 3. Those in which a canal is made in or 
through the anterior gastric wall (Witzel, 7 Fischer, 8 Marwedel," Kader 10 ). 
In reviewing the reported cases Berndt found that the sphincter made from 
the abdominal musculature alone had given few favorable results. The 
cases done by von Hacker's original method were obliged to use special 
apparatus, such as a rubber balloon, to protect the skin from the digestion 
and irritation which results from the leakage of the gastric juice over the 
abdominal wall. It is a procedure which has not held its place beside 
more practical methods. 

The originator of the cone operation was Hahn, who made an incision 
immediately below the left costal border. He perforated the eighth 
intercostal space, from below upward, through which hole he drew the 
stomach, using the elastic costal cartilages as a stop-cock. Although this 
method is effectual, it is said that the fistula gradually becomes enlarged, 
and occasionally leads to necrosis of the costal cartilages, which accounts 
for its limited use. Ssbanajew, Franck, and Albert have modified Hahn's 
technic so that a cone of the stomach is brought through the rectus 
muscle and fastened under a bridge -of skin by means of a second incision 
over the costal cartilages. Berndt is positive that this operation, by its 
inherent peculiarities, does away with the possibility of a spontaneous 

1 Von Hacker. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr., 1890, m, 348. 

2 Girard. Korrespondenzblatt fur Schweizer Aertze, 1888. 

3 Ullmann. Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 1894, xliv, 1662-1664. 

4 Hahn. Centralbl. fiir Chir., Leipzig, 1890, xvn, 193-195. 

5 Ssbanajew. Centralbl. fiir Chir., 1893, No. 40. 

6 Franck. Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 1893, S. 231. 

7 Witzel. Centralbl. fur Chir., 1891, S. 601. 

8 Fischer. Deutsch. Chirurgenkongress, 1895. 

9 Marwedel. Beitrage, z. Klin. Chir., 1896, Bd. 17, S. 56. 
10 Kader. Centralbl. fur Chir., 1896, S. 665. 


closure. In all forms of cone and canal operations subsequent observa- 
tions show that the two openings of the gastric fistula tend to approach each 
other. This apparently does not interfere with the continence of the valve, 
if the rectus muscle is used as a sphincter. In Witzel's canal-forming 
operation a catheter is sewed into the stomach, and the latter attached 
to the abdominal wall. This has proved to be a good method, but it has 
a limited application in cases where the stomach is too contracted to furnish 
the proper gastric surface into which to bury the catheter. This objection 
also holds against the cone operation. 

The Witzel and the Ssbanajew-Franck technics are described in this book 
because it is felt that they are the most popular operations. In conditions 
where the stomach is too small to allow these operations to be used the 
technic devised by Marwedel or by Kader may be employed, in which but 
a small portion of the gastric wall is required. 


Steps : 

(i) Incision; exploration of stomach. 

(2) Stomach withdrawn from abdomen, and catheter buried in 

anterior wall, the eye pointing to the left. 

(3) Point of catheter inserted into stomach, for two inches, and 

opening buried. 

(4) Line of suture buried, with a second layer of seromuscular 


(5) Stomach anchored to abdominal wall by two interrupted 


(6) Closure of abdominal wall; wicks. 

The abdomen is entered through the fibers of the left rectus muscle, between 
the ensiform cartilage and the umbilicus. The opening should be large 
enough to allow easy exploration of the stomach, the point to determine 
being whether or not the stomach is contracted to such a degree as to make 
the operation impossible. If the stomach is large enough for the purpose, 
it is withdrawn from the abdomen, and its anterior wall drawn downwards. 
A large catheter, or a rectal tube, is buried in the anterior wall with sero- 
muscular stitches, for a distance of three inches, parallel to the lesser curva- 
ture, with the eye of the catheter pointing upward and to the left as high 

Fig. 141. — Witzel's Gastrostomy. 
Catheter partly buried in stomach. Guide stitch above opening. Interrupted stitches placed before 

inserting point of catheter. 

Fig. 142. — The eye of the catheter has been inserted within the stomach. Interrupted stitches ready 

to tie. 




as possible. The higher the eye is placed, the less likely is regurgitation 
to take place. Before opening the stomach, a guide stitch is introduced, 
just above where the opening is to be made, in order to steady the stomach 
as it is being incised. Two interrupted stitches are next introduced, but 
not tied, over the point where the opening is to be made. A quick thrust 
of the knife opens the stomach, and 
the redundant edges of mucous mem- 
brane are trimmed away with scis- 
sors (Fig. 141). The catheter is 
now slipped into the stomach for 

Fig. 143. — Witzel's Gastrostomy. 
Stomach fastened to anterior abdominal wall by 
interrupted stitches. These stitches penetrate all 
layers, including the anterior rectus fascia. The 
ends are left long to assist in removal, later. 

Fig. 144. — Witzel's Gastrostomy, Cross 
Eye of catheter is in the cavity of the 
stomach. Note the various layers through 
which the catheter passes. 

about two inches, and its hole of entrance buried by tying the inter- 
rupted stitches already placed (Fig. 142). It is safer to close in the line 
of suture with a second layer of seromuscular stitches, placed from 
above downward. As soon as the eye of the catheter enters the 
stomach, the outer end of the catheter is clamped to prevent leakage. 


The stomach is finally anchored to the abdominal wall. Mixter accom- 
plishes this by means of two interrupted stitches which pick up the 
stomach on each side of the lower exit of the catheter. One arm 
of the stitch penetrates all the abdominal layers, through, and including, 
the anterior fascia of the rectus muscle, and is tied to the other arm as it 
lies across the cut edges of the abdominal wound (Fig. 143). The abdomen 
is closed, in layers, or with through-and-through stitches, as preferred. 
Small spaces are left above and below the exit of the catheter for purposes 
of drainage, which is done with cigarette wicks. The ends of the stitches 
which anchor the stomach are left long, outside of the abdominal wound, 
and are used to assist, later, in the removal of the stitches themselves, after 
the stomach has become firmly fixed to the abdominal wall by adhesions. 
Feeding may commence at once, if necessary; the wicks are removed on 
the second day. Fig. 144 is a cross section. 

The catheter is kept in place as long as artificial feeding is necessary, 
since the fistula will tend to close on the withdrawal of the tube, thus render- 
ing its subsequent introduction difficult. It is customary to remove the 
catheter while carrying out Abbe's treatment for esophageal stricture 
(cutting stricture with string). 

This technic has been repeatedly modified by various surgeons. The 
method described here is the one most commonly accepted. 
Steps : 

(1) First incision, parallel to ribs, rectus split. 

(2) Second incision, above costal margin, parallel to first. 

(3) Bridge of skin, between two cuts, raised by blunt dissection. 

(4) Cone of stomach wall pulled out, and passed under bridge. 

(5) Closure of skin over first incision. 

(6) Apex of cone opened after two days. 

The first skin incision is about three inches long, and is made, according 
to Fenger, in a line parallel to, and about one and one-half inches from the 
left costal border, commencing near the middle line (Fig. 145). The fibers 
of the rectus muscle are separated, vertically, and the peritoneum opened. 
A second incision, three-fourths inch long, is next made parallel to the first, 


through skin and fascia, about one inch above the costal margin. A 
portion of the anterior wall of the stomach is taken up, near the cardiac 
end, and drawn out through the abdominal incision in the form of a cone 
(Fig. 146). This cone is prevented from slipping back by four stitches 
which attach its base to the cut peritoneal edges of the abdominal wound. 
The bridge of skin intervening between the two incisions is raised by blunt 
dissection just enough to allow the cone to be passed beneath and fastened 
(Fig. 147), after which the skin is completely closed over the first incision 

\ '\ 


Fig. 145. — Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy. 
Incision lines. 

(Fig. 148). The opening of the cone is deferred for two or three days; but 
it may be done at once, if necessary. Fig. 149 is a cross section. 


This operation consists in enlarging the pyloric outlet of the stomach 
by stretching. It was formerly much used for benign and, occasionally, 
for malignant strictures of the pylorus. 

There are two objections to the technic, the first being the transient 
nature of the results obtained. Although immediate relief may be ex- 


perienced after stretching of the pylorus, the reported cases frequently 
show a return of the symptoms within a few months or weeks. The second 
objection to this operation is the danger of rupturing the duodenum. 
Several cases of fatal peritonitis have been attributed to this cause. 1 In re- 
cent years stretching of the pylorus has been superseded by more effective 
operations, although, in occasional cases of spasm 2 , 3 , or hypertrophy of the 
circular fibers of the pylorus 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , the results yielded are said to have 
been good. 

There are two methods of stretching the pylorus, known from their 
originators as the operations of Loreta and of Hahn. 

In his first operations Loreta opened the stomach about three centimeters 
from the sphincter, parallel with and about half way between the curvatures. 
He then pushed a finger slowly and gradually into the contracted outlet. 
This process was continued until it was possible to introduce both index 
fingers, one of which was used to steady the pylorus, while the other was 
gradually separated from the first. In this manner a very large opening 
was effected. Manual dilatation afterwards gave way to the use of instru- 
ments, so that in the rare instances where Loreta's operation is now em- 
ployed the stretching is done with bougies, sounds, or a uterine dilator. 
It is recognized, nevertheless, that the use of instruments for the purpose 
of stretching the pyloric sphincter adds a considerable risk to the operation 
from the increased danger of tearing the duodenum. 
Steps : 

(i) Incision into the stomach. 

(2) Dilatation of the pylorus. 
The gastric incision is best made at right angles to the long axis of the pylo- 
rus, at least two inches proximal to the sphincter. This method minimizes 
the hemorrhage since the cut is practically parallel to the vessels. Beside 

1 Swain. London Lancet, 1891, 1, 87. 

2 Carle and Fantino. Arch. f. Klin. Chir., Bd. lvi, Heft 1. 

3 Boas. Arch. f. Verdauungskr., 1898, Vol. rv, p. 47. 

4 Thayer. Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin, 1893, Vol. iv, No. 31. 

5 Hirsch. Berl. Klin. Wochenschr., November 9, 1896. 
R Lindstrom. Hygeia, September, 1899, p. 267. 

7 Kammerer. Annals of Surgery, 1900, Vol. xxxn, p. 18. 

8 Loreta. Mem. Accad. d. Sc.d. 1st. di Bologna, 1882, 4, S, iv, 353-375. 

Fig. 146. — Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy. 
Bridge of skin dissected up. The cone of the stomach is being pulled beneath bridge. 


Fig. 147. — Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy. 

Cone of stomach held in place with forceps. The base of the cone fastened to the peritoneum with 

interrupted stitches. These stitches arc only visible in the cross section. 

2 ij 






Fig. 148.— Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy. 
Skin closed over base of cone. Apex of cone opened and sewed to skin. 

Fig. 149.— -Ssbanajew-Franck Gastrostomy. 

Cross section. 



the avoidance of excessive bleeding, there are two other advantages gained 
by entering the stomach through a transverse incision, as follows: The 
approach to the pylorus is rendered much easier since retraction is only 
necessary on the distal side of the wound to expose freely the pyloric out- 
let. On the other hand, the ultimate scar formation which follows the 
healing of a longitudinal incision must narrow, more or less, the caliber of 
the zone involved, a possibility which should be wholly escaped by adopting 
the transverse opening. In non-malignant strictures of the pylorus much of 
the muscle has been replaced by connective tissue. Stretching of the inelas- 
tic scar has been recognized as dangerous, and, for this reason, abandoned. 
When pylorodiosis is done for spasm or for hypertrophy of the circular 
muscular fibers extreme caution is necessary in the introduction of the 
instrument in order to avoid tearing the mucous membrane, with resulting 
intractable bleeding. The left hand steadies the pylorus from the outside 
while the point of the instrument is delicately engaged with the right. After 
the outlet has been opened to slightly above its normal caliber the stomach 
is closed with two layers of sutures. 


The chief advantage of Hahn's technic seems to be the exemption of 
the stomach from incision. This operation should not be done without 
gloves, else the nail on the entering finger may injure the peritoneum. 

Steps : 

(1) Pylorus steadied with left hand. 

(2) Pylorus stretched by invagination of anterior wall on finger. 
Unless the left hand holds the pylorus and the beginning of the duodenum 
it is obviously not possible for the right hand to exert the pressure necessary 
for this technic. The success of the method depends upon the muscular 
relaxation of that portion of the anterior wall invaginated on the finger. In 
case the muscular spasm reaches beyond the immediate vicinity of the 
sphincter, a wide margin should be taken from the contracted area. The fin- 
ger is gradually pressed backward and to the patient's right, until the tip en- 
gages the orifice; it may be necessary to use the little finger for this purpose 
when the hole is very small. Steady pressure against the left hand gradually 
wedges the finger into the sphincter, when it is quickly substituted for a 

1 Hahn. Deuts. Med. Wochenschr., 1891, xvu, p. 913. 



larger finger. Writers who have had experience with Hahn's operation 
are agreed that, to get the best after-effects, it is sufficient to introduce two 
fingers (Fig. 150). 

^ / Fig. 150. — Pylorodiosis, Hahn's Method. 

,<J/The right forefinger is wedging a fold of the anterior stomach wall into the pyloric outlet. The left hand 
\At;LI \iv ■/ steadies the duodenum. 

Drainage of the stomach may be accomplished in one of several ways: 

(1) Pyloroplasty (Heinecke-Mikulicz) . 

(2) Gastroduodenostomy. 

Finney's method. 
Kocher's method. 

(3) Gastroenterostomy. 

Posterior method. 
Anterior method. 
In the discussion of the mechanical indications for these operations pyloro- 


plasty and gastroduodenostomy may be considered in the same class, al- 
though their clinical indications vary within certain limits. A mode of 
procedure adaptable to every case of obstruction of the pylorus has not 
been found; the technic must be chosen to meet the condition discovered 
at operation. In working upon the stomach of normal animals Cannon 
and Blake have demonstrated several new and important facts concerning 
the movements of the food in the stomach after various gastrointestinal 
operations. Their conclusions are quoted in full: 1 

"The stomach is not a passive bag. During digestion the cardiac end 
slowly contracts, pressing its contents into the pyloric end. Over the pyloric 
end during digestion peristaltic waves are continually running, churning 
the food with the gastric juices and forcing the chyme into the intestine. 
Observations on the functioning human stomach show that as it empties 
it shortens, especially along the greater curvature. Therefore the part of 
the stomach lowest when the organ is full or relaxed is not lowest as it 
empties. The pylorus then becomes the lowest point. Even if 'gravity 
drainage' occurred, the pylorus is the natural outlet so long as the stomach 
retains its power of contracting. 

"The pressure within the abdomen is approximately atmospheric 
pressure. The pressure in any part of the passive alimentary canal depends 
on the weight of the overlying abdominal organs. If the canal is inactive, 
the food therefore is as if surrounded by water. Gravity cannot act, and 
gravity drainage does not occur. 

"After an ordinary meal, the peristalsis of the pyloric end of the stomach 
makes the contents of this part more fluid than the contents of the cardiac 
end. Because peristaltic waves move toward the pylorus, the intra- 
gastric pressure is three or four times greater at the pylorus than in the 
cardiac end. Observations on large cats with gastroenterostomy openings 
of various sizes at various parts of the stomach showed that unless the open- 
ing, or stoma, was in the antrum — i. e., close to the pylorus — the food, even 
when fluid, was pushed through the pylorus rather than through the stoma. 

"With peristalsis only in the pyloric end of the stomach, with the intra- 
gastric pressure much greater at the pylorus than elsewhere in the stomach, 
and with the food in the pyloric end normally more fluid than that in the 

1 Cannon and Blake. Annals of Surgery, May, 1905. 


cardiac end, the food is forced into the intestine through the pylorus and not 
through the artifical opening, when both ways are offered. 

"Circulation of the food through the pylorus to the duodenum and 
back to the stomach through the anastomosis has been repeatedly observed, 
but it was not followed by the clinical symptoms of 'vicious circle.' The 
circulation was observed best when the stomach was very full. The 
stretching of the stomach separates the lips of the stoma and draws the 
intestinal wall into line with the gastric wall. The openings into the 
intestine at the stoma become mere slits, and act like valves, permitting 
the entrance, but preventing the exit, of the food. 

"The clinical symptoms of the 'vicious circle' have been observed in 
animals in which a kink of the intestine has been found just distal to the 
anastomosis. Kinks at this point cannot be straightened by peristaltic activ- 
ity because the circular fibers of the intestine are cut at the nearby stoma. 

"It is important that food be mixed with the secretions poured into 
the duodenum. These are highly effective in digestion, and also neu- 
tralize the acid chyme. If food leaves the stomach by the stoma, it is 
not mixed with these secretions. Jejunal ulcers after gastroenterostomy 
may be due to the presence of acid in the region in which inorganic acid is 
not normally found. 

"From the above considerations, it was concluded that the stoma 
should be large and as near to the pylorus as possible; that the circulation 
of the food be rendered less probable by avoidance of overeating, and that, 
so far as possible, kinks be obviated by attaching a narrow band of the distal 
gut to the stomach for several centimeters beyond the stoma, thus permitting 
peristalsis to become an effective force. 

"The probability of a circulation of the food whenever the pylorus 
is left open, the non-mixture of the food with the digestive and neutralizing 
fluids in the duodenum, and the ever-present danger from kinks in gastro- 
enterostomy, make the operation not an ideal one. 

"In pyloroplasty (preferably the Finney operation) these objections 
are avoided. And a too rapid exit of the food through the pylorus is pre- 
vented by rhythmic segmentation of the food in the duodenum, an activity 
which in part replaces the function of the pylorus, and also mixes the food 
with the pancreatic juice and the bile. " 



(Heinecke '^Mikulicz 2 .) 

This operation consists in enlarging the pyloric outlet of the stomach by 
means of incision and suture. It is done in certain cases where the caliber 
of the opening has become contracted as a result of benign disease, usually 
from scars following gastric ulcer. W. J. Mayo 3 states that, although the 
operation is attended with little risk, the technic has several deficiencies. 
It enlarges the caliber of the opening upward as well as downward in the 
line of drainage, while the extent to which this enlargement can be carried 
out is limited. Mayo has found that extensive adhesions commonly 
follow this operation, and in this manner the pyloric opening becomes 
permanently fixed at a high level. In cases where the muscle-fibers of the 
stomach are not capable of carrying out the normal peristaltic action, 
considerable difficulty may attend the effort to lift the food up through 
the highly-placed outlet. Mayo tried to overcome the difficulty just 
mentioned by fastening the pylorus in a lower position, but he does not 
advise the adoption of this method. Robson and Moynihan 4 do not favor 
the general use of this technic but reserve it for "string-like narrowing, or 
in spasm of the pylorus." 

Steps : 

(i) Exposure of pylorus, application of clamps. 

(2) Horseshoe incision for division of stricture. 

(3) Conversion of horseshoe into vertical incision. 

(4) Opening sewed together in new position in two layers. 

The abdomen is opened in the median line, and the pylorus exposed. 
After carefully walling off the field of operation with gauze, the pylorus 
is brought forward. In cases where the pylorus is held down by adhesions, 
this operation is said to be contraindicated. The clamps are applied as 
follows: On the stomach, the blades are placed directly across the pyloric 
portion, about three inches proximal to the stricture. The lower jaw of 

1 Heinecke. Ref. by Fronmuller. " Operation der Pylorusstenose," Inaug. Dissert., Furth, 

2 Mikulicz. Archiv fur Klin. Chir., 1887, Bd. 37, S. 79. 

3 Mayo, W. J. Annals of Surgery, November, 1905. 

1 Robson and Moynihan. "The Surgical Treatment of Diseases of the Stomach," 1904, p. 265. 


the clamp penetrates the gastrocolic omentum and lies beneath the stomach, 
in the lesser peritoneal cavity. On the duodenum, the clamp is placed 
about three inches distal to the stricture, at right angles to the long axis 
of the intestine. Mikulicz's incision is made parallel to the long axis of 
the pylorus and the duodenum, having the shape of a horseshoe, the arms 
of which extend over the stomach and the duodenum for about one inch 
on either side of the stricture (Fig. 151). Richardson 1 modifies this opera- 
tion, in the presence of a dense stricture, by excising the thickened mass 
before uniting the cut edges. The redundant mucous membrane is cut 
away, as shown in Fig. 152. The second part of the operation consists 
in seizing the upper and the lower lips of the incision at their middle points. 
By drawing one edge upward and the other downward the incision is 
changed from a horseshoe curve into an irregularly vertical line. While 
held taut, either with guide stitches or with forceps in this new position, 
the cut is sewed up in two layers, as usual. 


This operation consists in establishing an artificial outlet between the 
stomach and the upper portion of the duodenum. Kocher 2 first described 
the operation of gastroduodenostomy in 1891 when be joined the duodenum 
to the posterior wall of the stomach after resection of the pylorus. This 
gastroduodenostomy is not a lateral but an end-to-side technic. In 1892 
Jaboulay 3 reported the first lateral anastomosis between the stomach and 
the duodenum. This is quite similar to the present operation, although 
many difficulties have been removed by later technical improvements. 
Henle, 4 Villard, 5 and Tixier 6 have since published cases and experimental 
work concerning gastroduodenostomy. These writers allude to freeing 
the duodenum to bring it into contact with the stomach, but give no par- 
ticulars, other than to say that the technic is easy. As it is to this feature 
that the success of the operation is due, Jaboulay's method was compara- 
tively little used until the anatomical question had been solved by later 

1 Richardson, M. H. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, November 30, 1899. 

2 Kocher. Archiv fur Klin. Chir., 1891, Bd. 42, p. 542. 

3 Jaboulay. Archiv. prov. de Chir., 1892, Vol. 1, p. 551. 

4 Henle. Cent, fur Chir., 1898, Vol. xxv, p. 753. 

5 Villard. Lyon Medical, 1900, Vol. xcm, p. 522. 

6 Tixier. Ibid., p. 53. 


































































observers. In 1902 Finney 1 described his operation, and gave the first 
account of a method of mobilizing the upper part of the duodenum. In 
the following year Kocher 2 published a similar scheme for loosening this 
portion of the small intestine as a preliminary step to his modification of 
Jaboulay's operation. The two methods of performing gastroduoden- 
ostomy to be described are known respectively as : 

(1) Finney's operation. 

(2) Kocher's operation. 


This operation has for its purpose the enlargement of the pyloric outlet 
of the stomach. The incision is practically the same as that made for the 
Heinecke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, the method of sewing together the wound 
being the distinguishing factor of Finney's technic. Properly the operation 
is a pyloroplasty, but it is classed here as a gastroduodenostomy in order 
to save space in the description of the mobilization of the duodenum, a 
step which it has in common with gastroduodenostomy. The researches 
of Cannon and Blake 3 showed that the best drainage of the stomach is 
obtained by attaching the intestine as near as possible to the pylorus. 
Finney's technic was recommended by these writers for this purpose; but 
there are several conditions which make the operation difficult or impossible. 
"Extensive disease, adhesions, a short gastrohepatic omentum, especially 
in the presence of scar tissue," should be regarded as contraindications of 
this operation (Mayo 4 ). On the other hand, Finney ° states that in three 
years' experience he has found no pyloric obstruction in which this opera- 
tion could not be used. 

In his original communication Finney made no mention of clamps, 
and his method has been modified by the author 6 in this respect, by animal 
experimentation, as given below: 

1 Finney. Bulletin Johns Hopkins Hospital, July, 1902. 

2 Kocher. Zeitsch. fiir Chir., January 10, 1903, No. 2, p. 33. 

3 Cannon and Blake. Loc. cit. 
i Mayo, W. J. Loc. cit. 

c Finney. Surgery, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Chicago, Febuary, 1906. 
6 Gould, A. H. Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, JanuaryJs, 1905. 


Fig. 153. — A View of the Relations of the Posterior Abdominal Wall. (Sobotta.) 
The anterior abdominal wall and the anterior portion of the diaphragm have been removed by a 
frontal section. The stomach has been taken away between the cardia and the pylorus, exposing the lesser 
peritoneal cavity. The liver has been wholly removed. The parietal peritoneum has been denuded 
from the kidneys, part of the duodenum, the large vessels, and the musculature. The section shows the 
line of attachment of the mesocolon. Note relations of the duodenum. 

Steps : 

(1) Mobilization of the duodenum. 

(2) Clamps. 

(3) First seromuscular suture. 

(4) Opening of stomach and duodenum. 

(5) Inner through-and-through continuous suture. 

(6) Clamps removed. 

(7) Outer seromuscular suture. 

A portion of Kocher's original article is quoted below which describes the 
mobilization of the duodenum: 

"In intrauterine life the duodenum hangs free in the abdominal cavity 
(Merkel), and in childhood it still possesses considerable mobility. In 
later life its right side is directed toward, and becomes adherent to, the pos- 
terior abdominal wall, so that its anterior surface only is covered by the 
parietal peritoneum of the posterior wall of the abdomen. Even in the 
adult it may readily be demonstrated that the duodenum can be compara- 
tively easily freed again, so that, as in the fetus, its descending portion and 
inferior flexure may be rendered movable and brought forward. 

"To free the duodenum in this way it is necessary to divide the parietal 
peritoneum to the right of the descending part of the duodenum. The 
membrane is divided vertically over the front of the right kidney, a little 
to the left of the descending limb of the hepatic flexure of the colon. The 
parietal peritoneum stretches, in this situation, from the front of the right 
kidney to the colon, forming the upper layer of the transverse mesocolon. 
If the finger be passed upward along the second part of the duodenum, in 
front of the peritoneum covering the kidney, it will enter the foramen of 
Winslow, above the superior flexure of the duodenum and behind the free 
border of the gastrohepatic omentum, which contains the portal vein, the 
hepatic artery, and bile duct. 

"We recommend that this delicate layer of parietal peritoneum be 

right suprarenal gland 

hepatoduodenal hepatic inferior . , 

ligament vein vena cava pylorus cardia gastropancreatic fold parietal 

/ , , , peritoneum 


iac art. 

spermatic cord 

umbilical i 

Fig. 153 





divided with the knife two finger-breadths to the right of and parallel to the 
second part of the duodenum, so that the peritoneum covering the anterior 
surface of the duodenum may not be injured, as would be the case were 
the peritoneum simply torn through. 

"If the divided peritoneum adjacent to the second part of the duodenum 
be grasped and pulled forward, the fingers can then be introduced behind 
the duodenum so as to raise it from the vertebral column, the vena cava, 
and the aorta. If the peritoneum which descends toward the colon be also 
divided, the inferior duodenal flexure can also be raised up, not a single vessel 
of any size being injured. The head of the pancreas is raised up along 
with the duodenum so that the concave border of the latter, which must 
not be separated, becomes so movable that it offers no hindrance to the 
raising up of the duodenum. 

"By this procedure the muscular coat of the posterior surface of the 
duodenum is not laid bare, being covered by a layer of connective tissue. 

" By the above manipulations the second part of the duodenum is rendered 
so movable that it can be easily brought up to the anterior surface of the 
pyloric portion of the stomach above the greater curvature. 

"The extent to which the duodenum can be freed depends on the arrange- 
ment of the vessels. The right gastroepiploic artery (the main branch of 
the gastroduodenal artery) gives off important branches which pass from 
the left concave border of the duodenum across its transverse (third) part 
to the transverse colon. These vessels, which lie behind the upper layer 
of the gastrocolic ligament, do not interfere to any extent with the raising 
of the duodenum from the vertebral column. If the colon be thrown upward 
the large colic artery will be seen crossing in front of the duodenum and 
then running along its lower margin to reach the ascending colon and the 
hepatic flexure. While these vessels are not so easily displaced to the 
left as the branches which go to the colon from the right gastroepiploic 
vessels, they nevertheless do not prevent the inferior flexure of the duodenum 
from being sufficiently freed to allow the whole of its descending portion 
to be raised up from the vertebral column into a convenient position for 
suturing. The duodenum and the stomach, before being opened, must 
be grasped between the fingers above and below the intended line of suture 

so that escape of contents may be prevented. 



"The part of the duodenum that can be least freed is the superior 
flexure, because to it is attached the gastrohepatic omentum containing 
the important vessels already mentioned. This ligament, and its prolon- 
gation downward along the concave border of the duodenum on to the head 

Fig. 154. — Mobilization op the Second Portion of the Duodenum. (Finney-Kocher Method.) 
Note vertical peritoneal incision parallel to and to the right of the second portion of the duodenum. 
The duodenum is being shelled out with the finger. Also note the dotted line on the edge of the lesser 
omentum. A superficial cut through the omentum at this point allows the pylorus to drop down, thus 
assisting in the mobilization of the duodenum. 

of the pancreas, forms an axis around which the descending limb and 
inferior flexure of the duodenum can be rotated forwards. The lower 
end of the axis of rotation is determined by the vessels which descend 
vertically across the terminal portion of the duodenum, and which do not 



interfere with the raising up of the inferior flexure and the adjacent 
portion of the third part of the duodenum. " 

As an addition to the above procedure Finney suggests the division 
of the suspensory ligament of the pylorus which anchors the upper flexure 
of the duodenum whenever it is difficult to draw the pyloric angle down- 
ward to a sufficient degree to allow the anastomosis to be carried out. 
After the division of this peritoneal fold the pylorus can be brought down 

Fig. 155. — Finney's Gastroduodenostoiiy. 
Note application of clamps. On the stomach they are placed parallel with the greater curvature, 
thus controlling the hemorrhage from the vessels which are seen crossing the line of the future incision. 
Inner jaws of both clamps touch at the pyloric angle. When the handles are brought together, the 
pyloric angle (P) is put on the stretch. It can be seen that the use of guides is unnecessary to make 
the folds lie side by side. 

within easy reach (Fig. 154). The length of duodenum which it is re- 
quired to mobilize for this operation is not constant, but it will usually 
be found necessary to free two or three inches before the duodenum will 
lie easily beside the stomach. When the duodenum is sufficiently freed 
clamps are applied (Fig. 155). On the duodenum a fold of bowel about 
two and one-half inches long is taken up, longitudinally, and the clamp 
pushed up until the inner jaw rests against the pyloric sphincter. On the 



stomach the clamp is placed in a similar manner, the point of the inner 
jaw touching that of the duodenal clamp at the pylorus. The ends of the 
clamps are not freed, but grasp the bowel half an inch below the free edge. 
This places the clamps at right angles to the blood-vessels both of the 
stomach and of the duodenum. When the handles of the two clamps are 
brought together, the pyloric angle is put on the stretch, thus controlling 
hemorrhage, and preventing leakage from this inaccessible point. If the 

Fig. 156. — Finney's Gastroduodenostomy. 
Clamps are now side by side. Folds approximated by a continuous seromuscular stitch. Stomach 
incised to mucous membrane; duodenum then opened freely to pyloric angle. Scissors now cutting 
out redundant mucous membrane along dotted line. The next step is to sew x to x, beginning at the 
pyloric end of the tongue. 

clamps are placed in the manner recommended above, the remainder of 
the operation will practically amount to a repetition of the gastroenter- 
ostomy technic, described later. The folds are fastened together, as they 
lie side by side, by the usual outer seromuscular stitch. This stitch starts 
at the pyloric angle to make sure that this point is placed at the apex of the 
tongue to be cut out later. The incisions into the bowel and the stomach 
are like those of a gastroenterostomy, except that they are joined at one 



end, an addition which is made possible by the continuity of the two organs. 
The stomach incision is carried down until the mucous membrane pouches 
between the cut muscular walls. The stomach incision is then left, and 
the duodenum opened, until the mucous membrane is met at the pyloric 
angle (Fig. 156). The pouching mucous membrane is removed from the 
stomach by cutting with scissors close to one muscular edge, returning on 
the other side. The completed incision leaves a tongue-like process made 
up of half stomach and half intestinal walls. The two edges of the tongue 
are next sewed together with a continuous through-and-through chromic 
stitch, which starts at the apex of the tongue and goes across the cut to 
the base (Fig. 157). At this point the suture is interrupted with a tie, 

Fig. 157. — Finney's Gastroduodenostomy. 

Tongue (t) now closed over by continuous stitch, which has turned corner to finish front of suture, 

bringing X to X. This line of suture is finally buried in by a seromuscular stitch. 

after which the suture is continued around over the front and tied at the 
pyloric angle. It is necessary to loosen the clamps before placing the last 
few stitches of this suture, since this area is under too great tension to allow 
the edges to be brought together. Finney 1 closes in the front of the joint 

\Finney. Surgery, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, February, 1906. 

2 3 2 


with a series of mattress stitches placed before the incision is made. He 
finds this method to be preferred over the running stitch for closing in 
the front of the joint. The clamps are, finally, removed altogether and 
the suture buried in with a continuous seromuscular suture. If this opera- 

Fig. 158. — Finney's Gastroduodenostomy. 
Cross section of pylorus and duodenum before operation, for comparison with Fig. 159. 

Fig. 159. — Finney's Gastroduodenostomy. 
Cross section after operation, showing increase in caliber of pylorus; caliber increased over Fig. 158 

by length of sewed edges. 

tion is done without clamps, or if they are placed across the pylorus, 
the tongue, referred to above, will protrude between the edges of the 
wound and will thus hinder the suture over the front. If the clamps 
are placed as recommended here, this tongue will cause no more trouble 


than is experienced from the lower cut edges of a gastroenterostomy. As 
to the length of the incisions into the stomach and the duodenum, the 
usual size of the pyloric outlet should be fully restored, with a slight over- 
correction to allow for the possibility of a future contraction. 1 The open- 
ings made in the early cases, where this technic was followed, were usually 
larger than necessary, and have occasionally been followed by unpleasant 
symptoms, possibly due to the regurgitation of bile into the stomach. 
(Figs. 158 and 159 are cross sections.) 

The actual mechanical result of carrying the incision far down over 
the duodenum is not to increase proportionately the caliber of the outlet, 
for this can never be made larger than the diameter of the duodenum; 
but it converts the attached portion of the duodenum into a sort of extension 
of the pyloric portion of the stomach, leaving the duodenal outlet pointing 
downward at a right angle with the long axis of the stomach. 


This operation is a lateral anastomosis between the pyloric portion 
of the stomach and the second or descending portion of the duodenum. 
Kocher has found that the operation is contraindicated when adhesions 
are present between the duodenum and the under surface of the liver. 

Steps : 

"(i) Mobilization of the duodenum. 

(2) Clamps. 

(3) Lateral anastomosis. 
Kocher explains the technic as follows : 

"After what has been said regarding the freeing of the duodenum, 
the following will suffice to describe our method of performing gastro- 
duodenostomy. The most suitable incision is one similar to that which 
we recommend for exposing the gall bladder, — viz., an oblique incision 
two finger-breadths below and parallel to the right costal margin, beginning 
at the middle line. After dividing the skin and fascia the rectus muscle 
is cut through as far as the broad abdominal muscles. The posterior layer 
of the rectal sheath, the fascia trans versalis, and the peritoneum are divided. 
In muscular subjects the transversalis muscle is split parallel to its fibers, 

1 Finney makes the opening about 10 cm. 


which are then firmly drawn apart. Should any adhesions exist between 
the gall bladder and the colon they must be divided. The liver is drawn 
upward, the stomach to the left, and the transverse colon and the descend- 
ing limb of the hepatic flexure downward. The duodenum is then brought 
into view and its outer border is clearly defined. A pad of gauze is placed 
against the under surface of the liver, and the latter is then drawn well 
upward with a suitable retractor. Gauze compresses are also employed 
to push aside the stomach and colon. 

"The delicate layer of parietal peritoneum covering the kidney is divided 
vertically one and one-half inches external to the second part of the duo- 
denum, and the incision is then continued vertically downward through 
the upper layer of the transverse mesocolon (which is held on the stretch) 
as far as the large branches of the vessels. The fingers are then introduced 
behind the left edge of the incision through the peritoneum, and the duode- 
num is separated from the vertebral column, the vena cava, and the aorta, 
until it can be brought forward and pressed against the pyloric portion of 
the stomach, which, in its turn, is compressed against the left edge of the 
wound in the abdominal wall so as to shut off the general cavity of the stom- 
ach and prevent escape of its contents. Both stomach and duodenum are 
now compressed above and below between the fingers of an assistant, and the 
lateral anastomosis is effected in the usual manner by two rows of sutures. " 

Kocher gives no account of the technic for placing the clamps. The 
point of application of the clamps should be as near to the pylorus as the 
local conditions will allow. On the stomach the clamp is placed parallel 
to, and about half an inch from the greater curvature. On the duodenum 
the clamp is placed on the free border, parallel to the long axis of the 
intestine (Fig. 160). The remainder of the technic is that of the ordinary 
lateral intestinal anastomosis. 

Krause's clamps are especially useful for this operation, since the full 
curve of the blades will make their application easier in cases where the 
field of operation is difficult to approach. 

C. A. Porter 1 has successfully anastomosed the duodenum to the lesser 
curvature of the stomach, by a modification of Kocher's technic, in a case 
where the greater curvature was involved. 

1 C. A. Porter. Unreported case. 

Fig. 160. — Kocher's Gastroduodenostomy. 

The duodenum has been loosened and drawn inward. Krause's clamps are useful here on account of 

their full curve. Dotted line shows site of the anastomosis. 





(1) Posterior method. 

(2) Anterior method. 

This operation consists in the establishment of an artificial opening 
between the stomach and some part of the intestinal canal. The use of 
the term is now practically limited to the anastomosis of the stomach with 
the jejunum. It is hardly fair to quote opinions upon the subject of gastro- 
enterostomy, since this operation is still the center of experiment and 
discussion. Without committing any surgeon to the advocacy of this 
technic, it may be said that its elaboration has been largely due to the work 
of Wolfler, von Hacker, Peterson, the Mayos, Moynihan, Littlewood, Rob- 
son, Munro, and others. 


(Von Hacker. 1 ) 

Steps : 

(1) Great omentum and transverse colon lifted out of the abdomen 

to expose under surface of mesocolon. 

(2) Mesocolon opened over lowermost point of stomach, and 

posterior wall of stomach pushed through opening with 
fingers of left hand. 

(3) Clamps, stomach and jejunum; walling off. 

(4) First half of seromuscular stitch. 

(5) Incisions into stomach and jejunum. 

(6) Inner through-and-through catgut stitch. 

(7) Clamps loosened, one removed. 

(8) Second half of seromuscular stich, over front; second clamp 


(9) Cut edges of mesocolon sewed to stomach. 

The abdomen is opened about three-fourths inch to the right of the middle 
line, through the rectus muscle. The stomach is brought forward out of 
its bed, lifted, with the transverse colon and the greater omentum, out of 
the abdomen, and turned over the upper angle of the abdominal incision. 

1 Von Hacker. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr., 1890,10,348; Verhandl. d. Deutsch. Gesellsch. 
fur Chir., 1885. 


Fig. 161. — Front view of the relations of the great omentum and the stomach. (Sobotta.) 
Fig. 162. — The great omentum turned up exposing the small intestines. The transverse colon is undis- 
turbed. (Sobotta.) 
Fig. 163. — Transverse colon lifted up over the thorax. Small intestine falling to one side, disclosing the 

duodenojejunal flexure, with the ligament of Treitz. Note the colica media artery. (Sobotta.) 
Fig. 164. — The small intestine cut off between the beginning of the jejunum and the cecum. Note the 

cut mesenteric edges of the small intestine, the vessels, and the large intestine. (Sobotta.) 

This exposes the under surface of the transverse mesocolon, in which 
are seen ramifying the vascular arches of the colica media artery (Figs. 
161, 162, 163, and 164). The fingers of the left hand now grasp the point 
on the greater curvature which is lowermost when the stomach is in its 
normal relations within the abdomen. By pressing firmly upward on the 
posterior wall of the stomach with the fingers of the left hand the meso- 
colon is made to bulge over the point at which the anastomosis is to be made. 
A bloodless spot is chosen, and a small incision made through the mesocolon, 
in a direction at right angles to that of the long axis of the transverse colon. 
Moynihan 1 finds it of advantage to seize a small portion of the mesocolon 
with forceps, at a point near the spot selected for opening, in order to draw 
the mesocolon away from the posterior wall of the stomach while the incision 
is being made. Some difficulty is occasionally experienced in gaining en- 
trance into the lesser peritoneal cavity when adhesions are present between 
the mesocolon and the stomach. Under these circumstances the mesocolon 
should be separated by blunt dissection from the stomach for a sufficient 
distance to allow room for the anastomosis. When this separation cannot be 
done with safety, the anastomosis must be made on the anterior wall. The 
fingers are now slipped into the lesser sac, and the incision gradually en- 
larged, by tearing and stretching, to an opening about three inches in length. 
Occasionally it may be necessary to tie a small artery at the edge of the 
mesocolic incision. Continued pressure with the left hand at the point 
grasped earlier in the operation will present the posterior wall of the stomach 
at the window in the mesocolon, where the stomach is grasped and pulled 
well through. Moynihan's line of incision is made obliquely from above 
downward and to the right, on an imaginary line drawn between two points 
which are, respectively, the middle of the dome, and the lowermost point 
on the greater curvature of the stomach. This lowermost point is, however, 

1 Moynihan. The Practitioner, London, 1904, LXxn, p. 251. 


xiphoid proc. of sternum costa[ arcn 
falciform lig. of liver > /, 

round ligament of liver\ \ j /I 

I // 


of epigastric 



Fig. 161 

hepatic / 
flexure , 

of colon 


splenic flexurt 
of colon 


FlG. 162 






of ColOi 

vermiform process ' 


urinary bladder 

Fig. 163 

sigmoid colon 

* A 

.«*-** <►. 

great omentum . 

ff'f I ^jfm 

transverse colon 

flexure --'' 
of colon 

splenic flexur 
jp- of colon 

- portion 
of duodenum 

root of 
f" mesentery 

~"|j- - - -L _ __ descending 
P p mesocolon 


inferior ileocecal foisa vermiform process urinary bladder rectum 

Fig. 164 


2 39 

a variable one, according to whether the stomach is at rest or in motion 
(Cannon and Blake). 1 In the resting stomach the lowest point is found 
almost exactly beneath the angle formed by the bending of the vertical 
portion of the lesser curvature to the right to become the upper border of the 

Fig. 165. — Posterior Gastroenterostomy. 
The clamps have been applied about three inches distal to the duodenojejunal flexure. The blades 
of the stomach clamp have been placed obliquely (Moynihan), while the handles point to the patient's 
right shoulder (Mayo, Munro). (Drawn according to suggestions from W. J. Mayo.) 

pyloric portion. 2 This point is placed at a distance of from two to three 
inches to the left of the pyloric sphincter. A fold of the posterior wall is 
picked up on Moynihan's line with two pairs of forceps, the lower end of 

1 Cannon and Blake. Loc. cit. 

2 Mayo, W. J. Annals of Surgery, November, 1905. 


which fold includes a small portion of the greater curvature (Fig. 165). 
When the clamp is applied to this fold, the tips of the blades point to the 
outer side of the patient's left hip, and the handles to his right shoulder 
(W. J. Mayo). 1 Mayo carries the gastric incision to the very bottom of the 
stomach, as seen at rest, thus necessitating a separation of the greater 
omentum from the posterior wall of the stomach for a short distance at 
this point. The experiments of Cannon and Blake, alluded to above, have 
shown that the lowest point of the stomach is not a fixed one, but changes 
rapidly as the peristaltic waves pass along from the fundus toward the 

In view of these valuable experiments, it seems unnecessary to carry 
the incision to the very bottom of the resting stomach. On the other hand, 
in performing a gastroenterostomy, it is desirable to leave the beginning of 
the jejunum and the posterior wall of the stomach as nearly as possible 
in their natural relations, after completing the anastomosis, — an anatomical 
advantage which is distinctly offered by Moynihan's line of incision. In 
cases where an enteroenterostomy is done, between the proximal and the 
distal jejunal coils (Braun 2 and Jaboulay 3 ), the incision should be made 
parallel to the greater curvature, as the natural anatomical relations will 
be changed by the downward traction of the anastomosis below. The 
identification of the beginning of the jejunum is accomplished by sweeping 
the finger along the under surface of the attachment of the transverse meso- 
colon to the posterior abdominal wall. The intestine will be found just 
to the left of the spine, as seen in the anatomical plates, whence it is hooked 
up on the finger, and brought out of the abdomen. The point chosen for 
the jejunal opening is, necessarily, variable. While the stomach lies 
outside of the abdomen, it is possible to perform the anastomosis close to the 
duodenojejunal flexure, as recommended by Peterson. 4 Before attaching 
the jejunum, however, to the stomach, an examination should be made to 
determine the position of the greater curvature, while lying at rest, within 
the abdomen. If the loop of jejunum be too short (after the stomach is 
replaced), a sharp downward kink will follow at the duodenojejunal flexure, 

1 Mayo, W.J. Ibid. 

2 Braun. Cent, fiir Chir., 1892, Vol. xrx, p. 102. 

3 Jaboulay. Archiv prov. de Chir., T. 1, No. 1, p. 1. 

4 Peterson. Beitrage zur Klin. Chir., xxix, 1900, 1901, p. 597. 


which may cause pain or obstruction. The jejunum is now seized with 
the left hand, about four or five inches from the duodenojejunal flexure, 
and put on the stretch, by pulling upward and to the right (Moynihan). 1 
The clamp then grasps a fold on the free border approximately three inches 
in length, the nearest point of which fold is three or four inches from the 
beginning of the jejunum. The handles of the two clamps are brought 
side by side, and the transverse colon, great omentum, and the portions of 
the stomach and the jejunum not included in the clamps are returned into 
the abdomen. The field of operation is walled off from the abdomen as 
follows : A small sponge is tucked between the coils, and around and under 
the clamps is wound a handkerchief gauze; over all is laid a dry towel. 
A continuous seromuscular stitch is first introduced, which begins at the 
left and ends at the right extremity of the clamped folds, the operator 
standing on the patient's right. A curved needle is useful for the first 
layer of the sutures. The thread is left long at the right end of the first 
seromuscular suture, to be used later in closing in the front of the joint. 
The length of this outer layer of stitches should be at least three inches, 
depending upon the size of the stoma desired. Incisions are now made 
into the stomach and the jejunum with a knife, about one-fourth inch to 
either side of the first seromuscular stitch. As the cuts are made, the 
serous and the muscular coats retract, and the mucous layer pouts into 
the incision. Care should be taken to cut straight toward the center of the 
gut lumen in order to avoid dissecting the submucosa from the mucosa. 
The ellipse of mucous membrane protruding into the incision is cut away 
with scissors, following the edge of retracted muscle (Fig. 156). By 
pulling the mucous membrane taut with forceps, and taking short, rapid 
bites with the scissors, 2 a clean-cut edge of mucous membrane will result, 
which does not retract. Moynihan 3 advises dissecting the muscle free 
from the underlying layer, and preventing the retraction of the latter 
by miniature vulsella forceps. From an experimental point of view it 
would seem undesirable to trim away an excessive amount of mucous mem- 
brane, since the object of the trimming is to give a clean-cut edge for sewing, 

1 Moynihan. Loc. cit. 

2 Littlewood. London Lancet, November 3, 1900, p. 1276. 

3 Moynihan. Loc. cit. 



and to avoid the possibility of obstruction by valve formation of the redun- 
dant tissue. On the other hand, if the trimming is carried to excess 
the mucous membrane will be under great tension after the suture is 
completed, thus resulting in a wide ulcer, which must delay the repair. 
The cut edges of the intestine and the stomach are now united with a 
continuous through- and-through suture of No. o chromic gut. It is cus- 
tomary to begin this stitch at one angle of the wound, and sew straight 

Fig. 166. — Posterior Gastroenterostomy. 
The stomach and the jejunum have been opened and the inner layer of through-and -through sutures 
begun, one corner having just been turned. Note that the field has been walled off with a towel, while 
a small sponge has been slipped between the two clamps. Beneath the towel has been wound a handker- 
chief gauze. 

across the base, around the second angle, and over the front. There is 
a distinct advantage, however, as pointed out previously by the author, 
in turning both corners without stopping, to avoid, as far as possible, all 
danger of leakage. The inner stitch is, therefore, begun in the middle of 
the base line and tied in the middle of the thread. From the first knot the 
suture goes outward toward each corner, piercing all coats, over and over. 
The first corner is reached and just turned, and here the thread is tied, and 



left long. After this, the suture begins with the long end left at the first 
knot, and goes outward to the second corner, which it turns, and, after 
crossing over the front, is tied to the end left near the first corner. This 
method avoids tying the last knot deep in the angle of the wound (Fig. 116). 
As no leakage can now occur, the clamps are unfastened and one en- 
tirely removed, while the other clamp is left in place with the jaws open, as 

Fig. 167. — Posterior Gastroenterostomy. 
The gastroenterostomy has been practically completed, although the front has not yet been wholly 
closed in by the seromuscular stitch. The clamp has been loosened but not removed (Munro). The 
edges of the mesocolic opening have been sewed to the stomach with interrupted stitches. 

recommended by Munro, 1 to prevent the anastomosis from sagging back 
into the abdomen (Fig. 167). After loosening the clamps, it may be found 
that the bleeding has not been entirely controlled by the through-and- 
through suture, in which case this opportunity is taken to make the wound 
perfectly dry before going on. The suture line should now be cleaned 

1 Quoted by Scudder. Annals of Surgery, September, 1904. 


before finishing the second line of stitches. This is best done by gentle 
washing with sterile salt solution. Gauze should not be used for this 
purpose on account of its abrading effect upon the peritoneum, with its 
dangers of subsequent adhesions. After washing the suture line, the 
towel which walls off the operative field is removed, thus exposing the clean 
gauze beneath. The front is finally closed in with a seromuscular stitch, 
starting from the long end left on the first outside stitch. Hadra 1 advises 
suspension of the loop to the stomach, on either side of the anastomosis, 
to prevent kink formation at this point. 

The stomach, transverse colon, and the omentum, which have been 
replaced within the abdomen, are now withdrawn, and the edges of the 
mesocolic opening are fastened to the posterior gastric wall, around the 
anastomosis, with two or three interrupted stitches. This prevents hernia of 
the small intestine into the lesser peritoneal cavity. When a long proximal 
jejunal coil is used, it is wise to add a jejunojejunostomy between the proxi- 
mal and the distal coils in order to eliminate, as far as possible, the danger of 
circular vomiting. Under these circumstances the gastric anastomosis must 
be at least ten inches distal to the beginning of the jejunum, in order to allow 
sufficient room for the lateral intestinal suture to be done without running 
the danger of leakage from the subsequent tension on the stitches. 
Fig. 1 68 shows a cross section explanatory both of the posterior and 
of the anterior gastroenterostomies. 

In his discussion of the relative merits of the anterior and the posterior 
methods of gastroenterostomy W. J. Mayo 2 speaks as follows : 

"For benign disease the posterior operation is the one of choice. It is 
applied at a higher point on the jejunum, and is unattended with the risk 
pertaining to the loop which must surround the transverse colon. That 
this loop is of dangerous import is shown by two of our secondary opera- 
tions, in one of which a number of feet of small intestine travelled through 
the noose, and, in the second, death was directly traced to adhesion and 
obstruction of the transverse colon. The length of this loop is from sixteen 
to twenty inches, a disadvantage when one considers the proportionately 
high value of the upper jejunum in digestion and absorption. The anterior 

1 Hadra. Berl. Klin. Wochenschr., 1892, No. 4, p. 75. 
3 Mayo. Loc. cit. 


2 45 

operation has some few indications. In cancer the disturbance is less, 
and, as the gastric juice has little acid, the patient cannot be expected to 
live long enough to develop a secondary jejunal ulcer. The anterior 

Fig. 168. — Gastroenterostomy. Cross Section. 
Two coils attached to show anterior and posterior methods. The section of the anterior gastro- 
enterostomy has been made at the point where the great omentum passes off to the side of the mesentery 
of the jejunum. 

operation is more liable to be followed by contraction on account of the 
traction weight of the attached jejunum, a diverticulum formation taking 
place which is followed later by contraction. This happens most fre- 


quently after the button, as the line of union is narrow and it has less of a 
grasp on the tissues. Contraction, however, is liable to occur after any 
form of operation, especially if the pylorus is unobstructed. With an open 
pylorus nature tends to close the opening, no matter what the form of 
operation; but the shorter the loop the less the probability of contraction, 
and in the operations without a loop we would not consider it a serious 
question. We have seen a reduction of one-half take place three and five 
months, respectively, after a Moynihan operation on a nine-inch loop." 

In "Annals of Surgery" for April, 1906, W. J. Mayo describes a modifi- 
cation of the method of attaching the jejunum to the posterior wall of the 
stomach. The gastric incision begins at a point one inch above the greater 
curvature, on a continuation of a line passing through the vertical portion 
of the lesser curvature. The incision ends at the bottom of the stomach, 
two and a half inches to the left. The stomach clamps are placed with 
handles to the right, their tips holding the lowest point of the stomach, 
including a bit of the greater curvature itself. The jejunum is clamped 
from one and a half to three and a half inches from its origin, the distal 
portion of the clamped folds being placed in the tips of the clamps. In this 
technic the jejunum is not reversed, thus avoiding the kink which is formed 
in the jejunum when Moynihan's technic is employed. Mayo states that, 
although the peristaltic waves of the stomach and of the jejunum travel in 
different directions, this fact has apparently made no difference to his results, 
which have been excellent. The technic for the lateral anastomosis is not 


(WOLELEE.. 1 ) 

The anterior gastroenterostomy is not at present considered to be the 
operation of choice, but it is indicated when the posterior operation is 
impossible. To quote Robson 2 : "In cases of extensive adhesions, in- 
volvement of the posterior wall of the stomach in the disease, a form of 
congenital deformity in the shape of a very short mesocolon, the posterior 
gastroenterostomy may be impracticable." 

1 Wolfler. Cent, fur Chir., 1881, No. 15; 1883, No. 23. 

2 Robson. Loc. cit. 

Fig. 169. — Diagram, Anterior Gastroenterostomy. 
Jejunojejunostomy between proximal and distal coils. 



Steps : 

(1) Abdomen opened; stomach exposed. 

(2) Duodenojejunal flexure identified. 

(3) Gastrojejunostomy on anterior wall of stomach. 

(4) Jejunojejunostomy between afferent and efferent loops. 

The abdomen is opened, the stomach turned up as if for a posterior gastro- 
enterostomy, and the beginning of the jejunum identified. The stomach 
is then turned back into its natural position, with its anterior wall forward, 
and about sixteen inches of the jejunum drawn out in front of the great 
omentum and the transverse colon. The anastomosis between the stomach 
and the jejunum is done at this point, after Wolfler's method, placing the 
stoma at the lowest point on the anterior wall, parallel to the greater curva- 
ture. After completing the anastomosis, a stay stitch may be placed at 
either angle of the suture (Hadra 1 ) to prevent the coils from dragging down 
and creating a kink at the opening. It is felt, by a large number of sur- 
geons, that circular vomiting is less likely to occur if a jejunojejunostomy is 
added between the proximal and the distal coils. The place for this second 
anastomosis is about four or five inches below the gastroenterostomy. It can 
be done by plain suture, or by mechanical devices, as desired (Fig. 169). 


This operation consists in the excision of the pyloric portion of the 
stomach. The size of the area removed depends, partly, upon the extent 
of involvement of the stomach; but the conception of the modern technic 
is based almost wholly upon the direction of the lymphatic currents in the 
gastric walls, and upon the sequence of infection of the adjoining lym- 
phatic glands. The operation derives its importance from the fact that from 
60 to 70 per cent, of all gastric cancers originate at or near the pylorus. 
Before describing the operation in detail, a short review of the blood and 
the lymph supply of the stomach will be given. 

The Blood Supply of the Stomach 2 is derived from the celiac axis, 
which is made up of three trunks : the gastric, the hepatic, and the splenic 

1 Hadra. Loc. cit. 
* Gray's Anatomy. 


The Gastric Artery is directed upward to the left, where it joins the 
stomach near the cardiac orifice, distributing branches to the esophagus, 
which anastomose with the aortic esophageal arteries. Other branches 
supply the cardiac end of the stomach, inosculating with branches of the 
splenic artery. The gastric artery then passes down on the lesser curvature, 
from left to right, to the pylorus, lying, in its course, between the layers 
of the lesser omentum, and giving branches to both surfaces of the organ. 
At its termination the gastric anastomoses with the pyloric branch of the 

The Hepatic Artery supplies the stomach with two vessels : the pyloric, 
and the gastroduodenalis. 

The Pyloric Artery arises from the hepatic, above the pylorus. It 
passes down to the pyloric end of the stomach, and travels from right to 
left along the lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and inosculating 
with the gastric artery. 

The Gastroduodenalis Artery is a short but large branch which 
descends behind the first portion of the duodenum to the lower border of the 
stomach where it gives off a large branch, the gastroepiploica dextra, to the 
greater curvature. 

The Gastroepiploica Dextra Artery passes from right to left along the 
greater curvature of the stomach between the layers of the great omentum, 
anastomosing about the middle of the lower border of the stomach with 
the gastroepiploica sinistra of the splenic artery. It gives off numerous 
branches, some of which ascend to supply both surfaces of the stomach, 
while others descend to supply the great omentum. 

The Splenic Artery contributes two sets of vessels to the blood supply 
of the stomach: the vasa brevia, and the gastroepiploica sinistra. 

The Vasa Brevia consist of from five to seven small branches which 
arise either from the termination of the splenic artery or from its terminal 
branches. They pass from left to right between the layers of the gastro- 
splenic omentum and are distributed to the greater curvature of the stomach, 
anastomosing with branches of the gastric and gastroepiploica sinistra 

The Gastroepiploica Sinistra Artery, the largest branch of the splenic, 
runs from left to right along the greater curvature of the stomach, between 






















r ^ 





















o 9 


> \\ N - S 

\ V\ \ ■ 

I '.: '. 

Fig. 171. — The Lymphatic Drainage of the Stomach, to Illustrate Cuneo's Division into 


Glandular groups have the same colors as the areas drained by them. 

Pink: Coronary area, coronary group of glands on the lesser curvature. 

Yellow: Lower portion of pyloric zone, subpyloric group of glands, about gastroepiploica dextra artery. 

Blue: Fundus, splenic chain of glands. 

Yellow-shaded: retropyloric group of glands. The coloring stops at the pyloric sphincter to show the 

position of the retropyloric group, which are drawn in at the correct level. 

2 53 


the layers of the great omentum, and anastomoses with the gastroepiploica 
dextra. In its course it distributes several branches to the stomach which 
ascend upon both surfaces; others descend to supply the great omentum 
(Fig. 170). 

The Lymph Supply of the Stomach. — The lymphatic drainage of 
the stomach has teen thoroughly studied by Cuneo, 1 and the author is 
indebted to this investigator for the facts given below (Fig. 171). 

The gastric walls are supplied with two sets of lymphatics, the one 
draining the mucous layer, the other the muscular layer. The two sets of 
lymphatics supplying a given area empty into the same glandular chain. 
The general direction of the lymphatic stream is toward the right, except 
at the fundus, where it travels toward the left. Each lymphatic stream 
empties into a definitely placed group of glands ("first relay"), after which 
all currents converge and join at the preaortic glandular group, placed 
about the celiac axis ("second relay"). Conversely, each glandular group 
drains a definite portion of the stomach walls, and, for this reason, Cuneo 
has named these lymphatic territories after the glandular chains with which 
they are connected. The main glandular chains are situated, respectively, 
about the coronary artery and its branches, the hepatic artery and its 
branches, and the splenic artery and its branches. 

The coronary or gastric chain of glands receives the lymph from the 
two-thirds of the stomach adjoining the lesser curvature. It is comprised 
of from two to six glands which are placed along the course of the gastric 
artery and its principal branches. In the region of the cardia, a small 
mass of glands is found on the ascending branch of the coronary artery 
which is in communication with the esophageal lymphatics. In the region 
of the pylorus, the coronary stream takes the lymph from the upper half 
of the stomach to the glands on the lesser curvature, while the lower half 
drains into the glands on the right gastroepiploic artery. 

The splenic chain of glands is distributed along the course of the 
splenic artery to its termination in the hilum of the spleen. It is comprised 
of from four to ten glands which receive the lymph from the area supplied 
by the vasa brevia, and the gastroepiploica sinistra (fundus). 

The hepatic chain of glands receives its main supply from the liver. 

1 Poirier, Delamere, and Cuneo. "The Lymphatics," 1903. 


It also receives the lymph which travels along the secondary chain about 
the right gastroepiploic artery. The right gastroepiploic chain is com- 
prised of two distinct glandular groups, the subpyloric, and the retropyloric. 

The subpyloric chain averages from three to six glands, which are 
situated between the layers of the great omentum, beneath the pyloric zone 
of the stomach. These glands are but rarely found in the middle part of 
the greater curvature, and very rarely in the region of the fundus. This 
group is usually placed at a distance from the greater curvature, along 
the descending branches of the gastroepiploic arch, and may be left in situ, 
during pylorectomy, unless their increase in size renders them apparent. 
The subpyloric glands receive the lymph from the inferior part of the 
pyloric portion of the stomach and from the upper part of the greater 
omentum. Their efferent vessels usually terminate in the retropyloric 
group ; but frequently go to the glands about the superior mesenteric vessels.' 

The retropyloric chain is placed along the gastroduodenal artery, in 
continuity with the subpyloric below and the main hepatic chains above. 
It is comprised of two or three glands which are in relation with the pylorus 
in front, and with the pancreas behind. This group is not uncommonly 
absent, and, when present, was found by Cuneo to have been always in- 
fected. They receive the lymph from the subpyloric group, and also from 
the posterior surface of the pylorus, and from the first part of the duodenum. 
Sappey 1 has demonstrated that there is a communication between the 
lymphatics of the stomach and those of the duodenum, although neither 
Most 2 nor Cuneo 3 have been able to corroborate his work. There is little 
doubt that there is a connection between the duodenum and the stomach, as 
the duodenal glands have been injected through the mucosa of the stomach; 
but the connecting lymphatics do not show a high grade of development. 
The three cardinal facts upon which the technic of pylorectomy is founded 
are the following : 

1. The slight lymphatic communication between the duodenum and 
the stomach impedes the advance of the infection into the intestine. 

1 Sappey. Traits d'Anat. Physiologique et Pathologique des vaisseaux lymphatiques, 1874, 
p. 76, and following, pi. xxv, Fig. 1. 

2 Most. Arch. f. Klin. Chir., lix, i, p. 175. 

3 Cuneo. These, Paris, 1900, and CunSo et Delamere, Journal de l'Anat. et de la Physi- 
ologie, 1900. 


2. Metastases from pyloric cancer first invade the glands on the lesser 
curvature, and on the subpyloric part of the greater curvature. 

3. The dome of the stomach is practically isolated from lymphatic 
infection by pyloric cancer. 

It will be noted, therefore, in performing the operation, that, — 

1. The duodenum is spared up to within three centimeters of the pylorus. 

2. The whole lesser curvature, with its glands, is removed up to within 
two and one-half centimeters of the cardia, together with the subpyloric 
part of the gastrocolic omentum. 

3. The dome of the stomach and a good share of the greater curvature 
are saved, following the Hartmann-Mikulicz line of section. 

In a recent article W. J. Mayo 1 has collected and simplified the technical 
improvements described by Czerny, Kocher, Hartmann, Mikulicz, and 
others. The result is a composite operation of great value. In the follow- 
ing description the author has followed rather closely the procedure advised 
by Mayo: 

Steps : 

(1) Exploratory abdominal incision. 

(2) Gastric artery divided between two ligatures. 

(3) Lesser omentum double tied and resected close up to liver. 

(4) Pyloric artery divided between two ligatures, and upper end 

of duodenum freed. 

(5) Ligation of gastroduodenal, or of right gastroepiploic artery. 

(6) Gastrocolic omentum resected in sections close to transverse 

colon, from right to left, as far as is necessary. 

(7) Ligation of left gastroepiploic artery. 

(8) Duodenum double clamped and resected, open end closed. 

(9) Stomach double clamped and resected, proximal to growth, 

open end closed. 
(10) Gastrojejunostomy. 
The abdomen is entered through a short median incision, half way between 
the ensiform cartilage and the umbilicus. Through this opening a careful 
digital exploration is made to determine the operability of the growth. 
If the condition is found to be inoperable, Mayo closes the abdominal 

1 Mayo, W. J. Annals of Surgery, March, 1904. 


Fig. 172. — Relations around the Head of the Pancreas. 
Note the close relation of the gastroduodenal artery to the head of the pancreas. 

incision with insoluble mattress sutures of silk, linen, or wire, placed in 
the aponeurosis of the linea alba. Sutures of this description will allow 
the patient to get about in a few days, and thus avoid the general debility, 
and hypostatic pulmonary lesions, which rapidly supervene when advanced 
malignant cases remain in bed for the length of time necessary for the 
wound to heal completely. If the condition is operable, the incision is 
enlarged to four or five inches, and the stomach exposed. 

As seen in Fig. 170, the pyloric portion of the stomach is supplied 
by four arteries : the gastric and the pyloric on the lesser, and the right and 
the left gastroepiploics on the greater curvatures. If these four vessels are 
tied at once, the remainder of the operation will be practically bloodless. 
The gastric artery is tied double and cut at the point where it reaches the 
lesser curvature, about two and one-half centimeters below the cardiac 
orifice. The lesser omentum is next tied double and cut in sections, close 
up to the liver, from left to right, from the point where the gastric artery has 
been tied up to the three large structures placed at the right border of the 
omentum (i. e., hepatic artery, common duct, and portal vein). In early cases 
of cancer a free excision of the lesser omentum is carried out in the same 
manner, since the omental fat may be already infected, before glandular 
enlargement is discernible. The pyloric artery is then double tied and 
divided near the pylorus, and the first part of the duodenum freed 'or three 
or four centimeters, to facilitate its resection later. Fig. 172 shows the rela- 
tion of the vessels around the head of the pancreas. The ligature of the gas- 
trohepatic omentum mobilizes the pyloric end of the stomach with the tumor 
(Fig. 173), so that, by introducing the fingers behind the pylorus, the gastro- 
duodenal, or the right gastroepiploic arteries can easily be reached. It 
will be remembered that the retropyloric glands lie in the groove between 
the duodenum and the head of the pancreas, and receive the lymph from 
the subpyloric group in the gastrocolic omentum. These retropyloric 
glands must always be removed, if found enlarged; but, as they surround 
the gastroduodenal artery, this vessel must be tied above the glands before 
trying to dissect them out (Kocher). If these glands are not enlarged, the 

Fig. 173. — Pylorectomy. 
Gastric and pyloric arteries tied and cut. Section of the lesser omentum, saving the bile duct and 
blood-vessels at the edge of the omentum. Clamps on duodenum at the level of future section. The 
Hartmann-Mikulicz line of section. (This series is redrawn from W. J. Mayo's technic.) 


Fig. 174. — Pylorectomy. 
Section of duodenum between clamps, distal end partly closed in. Ligature of gastroduodenalis 
and of gastroepiploica sinistra arteries. Section of gastrocolic omentum close to transverse colon. 
Kocher's clamps on stomach at the Hartmann-Mikulicz line of section. 

j6 1 


fingers behind the pylorus separate the gastrocolic omentum from the 
transverse mesocolon, and the ligature placed farther down on the right 
gastroepiploic artery. The gastrocolic omentum is next resected in sections 
from right to left for the desired distance on the greater curvature (Fig. 
174). The subpyloric glands are situated at a distance from the greater 
curvature, and, to be certain of removing all of the infected tissue, the 
resection of the gastrocolic omentum must be carried close to the transverse 
colon. Metastases from disease of the greater curvature are occasionally 
carried to the glands of the transverse mesocolon. This region should be 
examined. Sometimes the distal cut edge of the greater omentum becomes 
much congested from venous obstruction on the right where it extends out 
over the duodenum. In cases where drainage is employed, Mayo advises 
excising this devitalized omentum. Care should be exerted, in tying off 
the gastrocolic omentum, to separate it from the mesocolon in order to 
avoid including in the ligature the colica media artery. This vessel 
furnishes practically the whole blood supply to the transverse colon, and 
its accidental inclusion in a ligature would not be difficult (Lauenstein, 1 
Gutsch, 2 Czerny, 3 Kuster), 4 owing to the normally close apposition of the 
mesocolon to the gastrocolic omentum. The left gastroepiploic artery is, 
finally, tied at a point on the greater curvature selected for the lower ex- 
tremity of the line of section. Figs. 175 and 176 show the relation of the 
colica media artery to the gastrocolic omentum. The stomach now being 
freely movable, and its posterior wall easily accessible, the peritoneal 
cavity is walled off with gauze and the resection begun. In excising the 
diseased pyloric portion a difference of opinion exists as to which end should 
be first cut away, the distal (duodenal), or the proximal (nearest cardia), 
Kocher 5 preferring the former, and Hartmann 6 the latter. Mayo 7 has found 
both methods indicated in special cases ; but, as a routine, resects the duo- 
denal end first, as it allows a better exposure of the stomach while working 

1 Lauenstein. Cent, ftir Chir., 1882, No. 7; ibid., 1885, No. 8, i3i. 

2 Gutsch. Bericht iiber den 12 Chirurgen Congress. 

3 Czerny. Wien. Med. Woch., 1884, No. 17, p. 18-19. 

4 Kuster. Cent, fur Chir., 1884, p. 754. 

5 Kocher. Text-Book of Surgery. 

6 Hartmann. "Chirurgie de l'estomac," Verhandl. des xni, Internationalen Med. Con- 
gresses, Paris, 1900. 

7 Mayo. Loc. cit. 



Fig. 175. — Sound Introduced through the Foramen of Winslow. 
Gastrocolic omentum opened to show its close relation to the transverse colon. (Sobotta.) 

Fig. 176. — Gastrocolic Omentum Cut and Stomach Lifted, Exposing the Lesser Peritoneal 

This demonstrates the danger of including the colica media artery when ligating the gastrocolic omentum 

during a pylorectomy. 

deep under the costal arch. This method is described later. The integrity 
of the duodenum in cancer of the pylorus has been regarded as established, 
because of the poor lymphatic communication through the pyloric sphincter. 
Cuneo 1 found malignant extension into the intestine in 37 per cent, of the 
cases which he examined, and Borrmann 2 in 32 per cent. In these cases 
the duodenum frequently appeared, macroscopically, to be intact, when 
it had been already invaded. Cuneo considers that the first two 
centimeters of the duodenum should be regarded as a suspicious zone, 
and that resection should be made at least three to four centimeters 
from the sphincter. Two small clamps are applied to the duodenum at a safe 
margin from the extreme edge of the growth (Furguson 3 ), and the intestine 
divided between them, either with a cautery (Mayo) or with a knife. The 
cautery is used to prevent the accidental inoculation of the cut edges with 
cancer and to stop hemorrhage at once. The closure of the duodenal stump 
is done by sewing the cut edges together with a glover's stitch. The 
edges are then invaginated and held in place by a purse-string suture exactly 
as described earlier, and shown in Figs, in, 112 and 113. 

In determining the proximal line of section, the method of lateral pro- 
gression of the growth must be borne in mind. Czerny 4 originally advocated 
allowing a margin of only one centimeter from the apparent edge of the 
growth. Eiselsberg 3 and Mikulicz find it necessary to remove "several 
centimeters, " without stating explicitly how many. Cuneo 7 has shown that 
the appearance of the serous surface of the stomach may give no clue to 

1 Cuneo. These de Paris, 1900, G. Steinthal; Revue de Chirurgie, 1900, p. 1513. 

2 Borrmann. Mitth. aus den Grenzgeb., I. Supplbd., 1901; "Das Wachsthum und die Vor- 
breitungwege der Magenscarcinoms," Iena, C. Fischer, 1901. 

3 Quoted by Mayo. Jour. Amer. Med. Asso., April 7, 1906. 

4 Czerny. Quoted by Guinard in his thesis at Paris: "La cure chirurgicale du cancer de 
l'estomac," 1898, p. 125. 

5 Eiselsberg. Ibid. 

e Mikulicz. Arch. f. Klin. Chir., Bd. lvh, 1898, p. 527. 

7 Cundo. These, p. 41, and Soc. Anat. communic. de Tuillet, 1900 (en collaboration avecLecene) ■ 

flaccid portion of lesser omentum dense portion 

left triangular 
Itg. of liver 

round ligament 
of liver 



denal lig. 

superior portion \A 
of duodenum 







{transverse colon) posterior layer 

of great omentum 


m anterior border 
Hi of spleen 


Fig. 175 

right kidney A\ 

,_ g. ant. layer 

t YpT'-ir^ of great 
j ■ U' omentum X 

inf. extremity 
of spleen 

Fig. 176 



the surgeon whether or not the underlying stomach wall is sound, because 
growth spreads most rapidly through the submucous layer (Fig. 177). 
The serous layer is not involved until the muscular has been penetrated, 
where resistance to the advance of the growth is well known. Czerny 
has since proposed leaving a margin of three centimeters from the apparent 
edge of the growth, and this has been adopted by Carle and Fantino 1 and 
by Hartmann. 2 Cuneo feels that this represents the minimum edge that 
should be left, and urges taking more leeway, as a rule. 

To recapitulate: The lesser curvature receives the bulk of the lymph- 
atic supply from both walls of the stomach. In early cases the omental fat 
may be infected when few or no glands 
may be found enlarged. For this 
reason the whole lesser curvature and 
the lesser omentum are to be removed 
in every case. Mikulicz's point of elec- 
tion is two and one-half centimeters 
below the cardiac orifice, just where the 
gastric artery is tied. Since the direc- 
tion of the lymphatic stream is toward 
the right, on the greater curvature, 
following the right gastroepiploic ar- 
tery, malignant extension to the left will 
be less rapid here in proportion to that 
on the lesser curvature. On this 

account it will be found that a good portion of the greater curvature can be 
saved, and, if a point on this curvature at least three centimeters from the 
growth be chosen, Hartmann's point of election will be established. By con- 
necting the points chosen on the two curvatures, a line of section results 
which passes across the stomach obliquely downward and to the right. 
Every point of this line must be at least three centimeters from the extreme 
apparent edge of the growth. 

A long Kocher clamp is placed obliquely across the stomach, 
between the two points mentioned above, while a second rubber- 

1 Carle and Fantino. Arch. f. Klin. Chir., Bd. lvi, 1898, H. 1 and 2, p. 226. 

2 Hartmann. "Chirurgie Gastro-intestinale," Paris, 1901. 

Fig. 177. — Pylorectomy. 
Shows manner of extension of growth 
(from Hartmann and Cuneo). jl. Mucosa; 
2, submucosa; 3, muscularis; 4, serosa; 5, 
floor of malignant ulcer; 6, edge of ulcer; 
7, lateral limit of extension of growth in mu- 
cosa; 8, lateral limit of extension of growth 
in submucosa; 9, metastatic nodules in sub- 
mucosa; 10, safe margin for resection of 
stomach wall. 



covered clamp is applied about one inch proximal to the first clamp 
and parallel with it. The resection is made between the two clamps along 
the Hartmann-Mikulicz line, either with a cautery, or with scissors, leaving 
an edge of at least half an inch projecting through the proximal clamp. 
When scissors are employed for resecting the stomach the two walls should 
be cut away separately, directly through all coats, the mucous membrane 
being trimmed down later flush with the muscular coats. It is possible 
to cut the muscular and the mucous coats at the same time in such 

Fig. 17S. — Pylorectouy. 
The lower figure shows the method of holding the scissors. The upper figure shows the line in 
which the scissors cut, when held in the position shown in the corresponding figure below. 1' and 2' 
show the resulting cut edges, after holding the scissors as in 1 and 2. When held straight as in 1, the 
mucous membrane projects beyond the muscle coats; when held on the oblique as in .', the mucous 
membrane is trimmed flush. 

a way that it will leave the two coats flush, without further trimming. 
This is done by pressing the inside blade of the scissors close to the mucous 
membrane on the clamp side, and thus bevelling the mucous membrane 
as the scissors cut (Fig. 178). After the resection is completed, the cut 
edges tend to retract through the proximal clamp at the two extremities of 
the wound. A snap placed on either end will prevent this while the first 
layer of sutures is being introduced. The cut edges are sewed together in 
the usual manner, with two layers of stitches, an inner througlvand-thoush 

Fig. 179. — Pylorectomy. 
The distal end of the duodenum is now wholly closed in. Note tied gastric, pyloric, gastroduo- 
denalis, and gastroepiploica sinistra arteries. Stomach practically closed in. Posterior gastroen 



and an outer seromuscular. Both sutures may be continuous. After the 
introduction of the inner layer the clamp is taken off and any bleeding 
points tied at once (Fig. 179). Before carrying the seromuscular stitch 
across the stump, it will be found of advantage to close in the two projecting 
ends. For this purpose two interrupted stitches, such as the author's 
mattress, are used. 

The last step in the operation consists in again connecting the intestinal 
tract with the stomach. Three methods are in use to accomplish this 
anastomosis: 1. By joining the distal open end of the resected duodenum 
to the open end of the stomach, after reducing the caliber of the gastric 
opening to that of the intestine (Billroth 1 ). This technic is being generally 
abandoned because of the great danger of leakage, although it is still giving 
good results to Conant 2 , and others. 2. By anastomosing the cut duodenal 
end to the stomach at a sound spot on its posterior wall, after wholly closing 
the open end of the stomach (Kocher 3 ). 3. The technic which gives 
the best results, and which was also suggested by Billroth, namely, a gastro- 
jejunostomy, preferably on the posterior wall, after closing the open-ends, 
both of the stomach and the duodenum. 4 

Drainage is not usually necessary, but when sepsis is feared a cigarette- 
wick should be placed at the lower angle of the wound, reaching down to 
a point just above the transverse colon (Mayo 5 ). 


This operation (resection of the middle portion of the stomach) is done 
for disease of the body of the stomach, such as stricture, or for malignant 
disease. The technic is merely an application of the usual methods for 
lateral anastomosis. 

Steps : 

(1) Ligature of vesels on the greater and the lesser curvatures. 

(2) Double ligature of omenta in section; resection between 


1 Billroth. I. Wien. Med. Wochenschr., 1881, No. 6, S. 162. 

2 Conant. Unpublished technic. 

3 Kocher. Archiv fur Klin. Chir., 1891, Bd. xlh, S. 542. 

4 Billroth. II. Reported by von Hacker, Die Verhandl. der Deutsch. Gesellsch. fur Chir., 
1885, Part n, Vol. xiv, p. 62. 

5 Mayo. Loc. cit. 


(3) Clamps. 

(4) Resection of the stomach. 

(5) End-to-end anastomosis. 

The stomach is withdrawn from the abdomen, and the causes of the con- 
dition investigated. The transverse mesocolon should be specially 
examined since its glands receive lymph from the stomach. This operation 
is usually performed for malignant disease, and a discovery of glands 
in one of the pathognomonic situations will give a clue to the extent 
and the site of the lesion. The ligature of the vessels on the curvatures 
is simpler than is the case in the pylorectomy, because the arteries 
are all tied at more easily accessible points. On the lesser curvature 
the descending branch of the gastric artery is tied double and cut on 
each side of the area to be resected, but leaving enough of the vessel to be 
sure of a good supply for the sutured edges. On the greater curvature, 
the epiploic arteries are tied in the same manner as was the gastric, on each 
side of the area to be cut out. If a suspicion of malignancy exists, a good- - 
sized V must be excised, both from the greater and from the lesser omenta. 
The V of greater omentum must include the subpyloric glands close to the 
transverse colon, while in the lesser omentum all glands and doubtful 
tissue are taken out. This operation, in other words, must conform with 
Hartmann and Cuneo's rules for pylorectomy (Fig. 180). After the 
omenta have been ligated, in sections, walling-off gauze is slipped beneath 
the stomach to protect the lesser peritoneal cavity from infection. The 
stomach is now double-clamped on either side of the area to be removed. 
The clamps are placed about one inch apart, allowing from one and one- 
half to two inches margin of healthy tissue. Harrington's straight clamps 
were designed for this operation. The resection is best done with 
scissors, in the method adopted for the pylorectomy, wiping away the 
mucus and contents which leak out as the incision is made. After 
the diseased portion of the stomach has been taken away and the 
edges of the gastric walls, projecting through the clamps, wiped clean, a 
fresh slip of gauze is substituted, to wall off the lesser peritoneal cavity, 
and the two clamps are brought side by side. There are several methods 
of anastomosing the stomach end to end. Scudder 1 has successfully applied 

1 Scudder. Annals of Surgery, 1905, Vol. 41, p. 712. 

Fig. 180. — Resection of the Middle Portion of the Stomach. 

Harrington's straight clamps in position. Incisions have been made into both mesenteries. Section 

lines on stomach indicated by dotted lines. 



Fig. 181. — Resection of the Middle Portion or the Stomach. 
End-to-end anastomosis of stomach after resection. Clamps turned to present cut edges. First 
half of seromuscular stitch placed. Through-and-through stitch begun; overlapping portion on greater 
curvature closed in. 




the Connell interrupted mattress suture to this situation, while Moynihan 
and others sew the cut edges together in two layers. As the second method 
is the one more generally used, this technic is described below. 

The anastomosis consists of outer continuous seromuscular and inner 
continuous through-and- through stitches. Upon bringing the two clamps 
side by side, it will be found that the upper portion of the stomach has a 
larger caliber than that of the lower. The two openings are brought to 

Fig. 182. — Resection of the Middle Portion of Stomach. 
Suture completed. Omenta approximated. Overlapping portion on greater curvature turned in with 

mattress sutures. 

the same caliber by taking a reef in the larger, and the anastomosis per- 
formed as follows: The clamps are held together, in such a manner 
that the line of the lesser curvature is restored, leaving the redundant edge 
of the upper portion to overlap on the greater curvature. The handles 
are now given a quarter turn, so that the cut edges project forward, thus 
facilitating the introduction of the first half of the seromuscular stitch, 
which is placed in the space intervening between the cut edges and the 
clamps (Fig. 181). The redundant edges of the upper portion are sewed 


together with a continuous stitch, and the remainder of the anastomosis 
done in the usual manner. The slip of walling-off gauze is afterwards re- 
moved, and the omental incisions closed with interrupted sutures (Fig. 182). 
When a very large section of the middle portion of the stomach has been 
removed it will be found preferable to join the distal segment to the greater 
curvature of the proximal segment, in a way similar to Billroth's first 
technic for pylorectomy. 1 In this manner the best drainage is obtained. 
After resections which leave the openings of the upper and the lower seg- 
ments at approximately the same caliber it is simpler to restore the lesser 
curvature, as described earlier, and turn in the edges of the upper segment 
which overlap at the greater curvature. 


The suspicion that an ulcer is underlying malignant degeneration 
warrants the excision of the doubtful area. When the ulcer is accessible, 
the technic is obvious. Excision of an ulcer on the lesser curvature requires 
more elaborate technic. Vallas 2 has described a case of this type, and his 
method is adopted below: 

Steps : 

(1) Clamps. 

(2) Excision of V of lesser curvature. 

(3) Anastomosis, line of lesser curvature restored. 

The gastric artery is tied double, and cut, on each side of the diseased area, 
as has been described before. The lesser omentum is ligated in sections 
to include the glandular masses adjoining the gastric lesion, and the clamps 
applied. These are placed about one inch outside of the extreme limit of 
induration to take in a V-shaped section of the lesser curvature. This V 
includes a portion of both stomach walls, with its base above and its apex 
below. If the tips of the two clamps touch at the apex of the triangle leakage 
from the stomach will be prevented. The excision is now done with scissors, 
leaving an ample free edge projecting from both instruments (Fig. 183). 
Vallas found great difficulty in applying two layers of sutures to the pos- 
terior edges of the opening; the Connell mattress method is more applic- 

1 Clark. Journal Am. Med. Asso., Chicago, 1905, xliv, 1613. 

2 Vallas. Lyon Mddical, 1905, civ, 404-407. 

Fig. 183. — Resection of an Ulcer on the Lesser Curvature. 
Clamps. Vessels tied. Excision of triangular portion of the stomach, on lesser curvature. Excision of 

glands in the lesser omentum. 


...( ym 

Fig. 184. — Eesection oe an Ulcer on the Lesser Curvature. 
Posterior edges of wound approximated with Connell mattress sutures. Anterior edges approximated 

with two layers of continuous stitches. 





able. These stitches can be put in, from apex to base, until the lesser 
curvature is reached, after which the front can be closed in with two layers 
of continuous stitches, as usual (Fig. 184). 


The operation described below consists in the application of the Heinecke- 
Mikulicz principle of pyloroplasty to a stricture in the body of the stomach. 

Fig. 185. — Gastroplasty for Hour-glass Stomach. 
Clamp^first applied parallel to long axis of stomach. Stomach opened; mucous membrane trimmed 

flush with muscle. 

The purpose of the operation is to increase the caliber of the stomach at 
the site of the constriction. Its use is advocated by Bardeleben, 1 Krucken- 
berg, 2 Eiselsberg, 3 and others. 

1 Bardeleben. Klemperer, Berliner Klin. Woch., 1889. 

2 Kruckenberg. Schmidt-Monard, Munch. Med. Woch., 1893, No. 19. 

3 Eiselsberg. Archiv fiir Klin. Chir., 1899. 


Steps : 

(i) Clamp applied in long axis of stomach. 

(2) Incision into fold included by clamp, with excision of redun- 

dant mucous membrane. 

(3) Clamp removed, incision pulled out until at a right angle to 

its original position, and clamp reapplied. 

(4) Wound sewed together with two layers of sutures. 

The object of the clamp is, of course, to control hemorrhage and to pre- 
vent leakage of the gastric contents. It grasps a fold in the long axis of 
the stomach, after which an incision is made through the fold held by the 
clamp, and the redundant mucous membrane excised (Fig. 185). The 
middle points on the lips of the wound are then seized with forceps and the 
clamp loosened. The two middle points, grasped by the forceps, are now 
separated from each other by pulling upward with one hand and downward 
with the other hand, at the same time lifting forward. This prevents leakage 
while the other clamp is off, and leaves the incision at a right angle to its 
original direction. The clamp is next tightly reapplied, thus holding the 
cut edges in their new position (Fig. 186). The points which correspond 
to the angles of the original incision are now in the middle of the clamp 
blades. These points will tend to retract, and should be pulled well through 
the blades and held fast, if necessary, with small hemostatic forceps. The 
incision is sewed together with two layers of sutures, an inner through-and- 
through, and an outer seromuscular, both of which are continuous. The 
clamp is removed before placing the outer suture, for the usual reasons. 


In 1894 Wolfler 1 first performed intergastric anastomosis between the two 
pouches of an hour-glass stomach, since when it has been frequently done in 
suitable cases. The operation is essentially a lateral anastomosis. 

Steps : 

(1) Clamps. 

(2) Lateral anastomosis. 

The clamps are placed across the stomach, taking up long folds. The lower 

1 Wolfler. Beitrage zur Klin. Chir., 1895, No. 13. 

Fig. 186. — Gastroplasty. 
Line of incision drawn out until at right angles to original position; clamp reapplied to hold edges in 

new position without hemorrhage. 


Fig. 187. — Gastrogastrostomy for Hour-glass Stomach. 
Clamps in position for lateral anastomosis; folds open; dotted line shows Kammerer's method of con- 
necting two incisions and applying Finney's technic. 


Fig. 188. — Gastroplication. 
Method of placing the stitches in the anterior wall. 



,\C ? - ■% 


^0 ^ c 

Fig. 189. — Gastroplication. 
Anterior wall plaited by tying the stitches. 

Fig. 190. — Gastroplication. 
Cross section showing plaits in the anterior wall. Posterior gastroenterostomy. 



angles of the folds include portions of the greater curvature and omental 
attachment, for the incisions necessarily are made low to obliterate the 
pouches (Fig. 187). The usual technic for lateral anastomosis is adopted. 
Kammerer 1 has successfully applied Finney's gastroduodenostomy technic 
to gastrogastrostomy. The dotted line in Fig. 187, connecting the upper 
angles of the clamped folds, shows Kammerer's method of converting a 
simple gastrogastrostomy into Finney's operation. For directions as to 
the application of the clamps for Kammerer's operation the reader is 
referred to the technic of gastroduodenostomy, page 229. 


Folding of the stomach, to diminish its size, is said to be indicated in 
those rare cases of atonic dilatation of the stomach not caused by obstruction 
of the pylorus. The operation was originated by Bircher, 2 in 1890. It 
has been performed since then, with a certain amount of success, by Weir, 3 
Bennett, 4 Brandt, 5 Moynihan, 6 C. B. Porter, 7 and others. Moynihan's 
technic is given here: 

(1) A series of interrupted seromuscular stitches are placed across 

the anterior wall of the stomach. 

(2) The tying of these stitches folds in the stomach. 

(3) Posterior gastroenterostomy. 

Moynihan has modified Bircher's and Weir's technic. He introduces a 
number of interrupted stitches which start from the lesser curvature and 
travel across the body of the stomach, parallel with each other (Fig. 188). 
Each stitch comprises a series of bites taken in the anterior wall of the 
stomach, about one inch apart. Upon drawing tight the threads, the 
stomach wall is folded into as many creases as there are bites in each stitch. 
Great care must be taken not to cause obstruction by placing the stitches 
too close to either aperture of the stomach (Fig. 189). Moynihan does 

1 Kammerer. Annals of Surgery, 1903, Vol. xxxvn, p. 281. 

2 Bircher. Correspondenzbl. fur Schweiz., Aertze, 1891, p. 713. 

3 Weir. New York Medical Journal, 1892, July 9, p. 29. 

4 Bennett. London Lancet, July 4, 1896, p. 8. 

5 Brandt. Cent, fur Chir., 1894, p. 36. 

6 Moynihan. London Lancet, April, 30, 1898, p. 1177. 

7 Porter, C. B. Trans. American. Surgical Asso., 1897. 


not attempt to plait the posterior wall, since this difficult move has not 
given the best results. He was once obliged to add a posterior gastro- 
enterostomy on a return of the symptoms, a measure which proved wholly 
successful. It would seem advantageous to perform the gastroenterostomy 
at once, in view of the fact that a deep pouch is otherwise left in the posterior 
wall (Fig. 190). 


Abbe, 162, 177, 210 
Allingham, 183, 185 
Audry, 187 

Barbat, 47, 48, 51, 53 
Bardeleben, 281 
Bardenheuer, 160 
Bayliss, 125 
Beer, 165 
Bennett, 293 
Berndt, 202 
Billroth, 269 
Binnie, 100 
Bircher, 293 
Blake, 45, 219 
Boas, 212 
Borrmann, 264 
Brandt, 293 
Braun, 240 
Briau, 136 
Burghard, 203 

Cannon, 45, 219 

Carle, 2r2, 265 

Charpy, 109 

Cheyne, 203 

Clark, 276 

Conant, 269 

Connell (F. G.), 8o, 91, 95, 145 

Connell (M. E.), 91, 164, 165 

Cuneo, in, 255, 256, 264 

Cushing, 21, 80, 81 

Czerny, 257, 263, 264 

Delamere, in, 255 
Diffenbach, 83 
Doyen, 86, 100, 160 
Dupuytren, 83 
D wight, 109 

ElSELSBERG, 264, 281 

Elliott, 133 

Fantino, 212, 265 
Fenger, 210 
Ferguson, 264 
Finney, 225, 231 
Fischer, 205 

Franck, 205, 210 
Fronmuller, 221 

Gant, 183, 186, 196 

Gaston, 170 

Girard, 205 

Gould, 45, 85, 99, 177, 225, 242, 266 

Gray, 249 

Gutsch, 263 

Hadra, 244, 249 

Hahn, 44, 205, 217 

Halsted, 79, 95 

Harrington, 20, 104, 128, 151, 220 

Hartmann, 257, 263, 265 

Heinecke, 221, 281 

Heister, 80 

Henke, 114 

Henle, 222 

Hirsch, 212 

Horsley, 96, 97 

Jaboulay, 136, 165, 222, 240 

Jobert, 80, 92 

Johns Hopkins Hospital, 44 

Kader, 205 

Kammerer, 212, 293 

Kausch, 43 

Kocher, 44, 104, 105, 222, 233, 258, 263, 269 

Krause, 100, 103, 234 

Kruckenberg, 281 

Krister, 263 

Latjenstein, 263 
Lembert, 79 
Lennander, 46 
Lindstrom, 212 
Littlewood, 237, 241 
Loreta, 212 

Madelung, 135 

Mall, 41, 1 14, 126 

Marwedel, 205 

Mass. Gen. Hospital, 129 

Maunsell, 21, 80, 91, 135 

Maydl, 183, 184 

May lard, 100 




Mayo (W. J.), 90, 160, 171, 172, 221, 225, 237, 

244, 246, 257 
McGraw, 170, 172, 188 
McLean, 171 

Mikulicz, 43, 221, 257, 263, 265, 281 
Mixter, 186, 188 
Monks, 109, 114, 131 
Most, 256 

Moynihan, 100, 129, 132, 221, 237, 238, 293 
Munro, 237, 243 

Murphy (F. T.), 55. 57. 59. 61, °4, 170 
Murphy (J. B.), 47, 88, 92, 99, 128, 150 

Nichols, 20 
Nothnagel, 125, 126 

Ochsner, 171, 173 
Oviatt, 77 

Pagenstecher, 21 
Pean, 100, 101 
Piersol, 17 

Poirier, 109, in, 255 
Porter (C. A.), 144, 234 
Porter (C. B.), 70, 293 

Quain, 113 

Richardson, 75, 222 

Robson, 43, 151, 152, 170, 221, 246 

Roux, 44 

Salicetto, 89 

Sappey, 256 

Schede, 130 

Scudder, 69, 100, 103, 145, 27c 

Sernoff, 114 

Ssbanajew, 205, 210 

Starling, 125 

Steinthal, 45 

Stohr, 17, 18, 19 

Swain, 212 

Thayer, 212 
Tiegel, 43, 44, 45 
Tixier, 222 
Treves, 131 

Ullmann, 205 

Vallas, 276 
Villard, 222 
Virchow, 44 
Von Hacker, 187, 205, 237 

Watts, 45 
Weinberg, 114 
Weir, 186, 293 
Welch, 44 
Winiwarter, 160 
Witzel, 205, 206 
Wolfler, 237, 246, 282 


Allingham's left inguinal colostomy, 183 
Anastomosis, end-to-end, 130, 137-143 

by Harrington's segmented ring, 153-157 

by mattress stitch, 145-150 

by mechanical devices, 149 

by Murphy button, 150-153 

by Robson's decalcified bone bobbin, 153- 

Connell's method, 145-150 
dangers, 133 
eight days, 29 
fourteen days, ^^ 
of large intestine, six weeks, 37 
plain, 134 
three days, 25 
end-to-side, 177-182 

Gould's method, 177-182 
lateral intestinal, 162. See also Intestinal an 
astomosis, lateral. 
Animals, Mall's experiments with, 41 
Anterior colostomy, 186-194 
gastroenterostomy, 246-249 
Womer's, method, 246 
Appendix, vermiform, burying stump of, 85, 8( 
collecting trunks of, anatomy, 112 
lymphatics of, 1 1 1 
Artery, colica media, no 
gastric, 250 
gastroduodenalis, 250 
gastroepiploica dextra, 250 

sinistra, 250 
hepatic, 250 
pyloric, 250 
splenic, 250 
Ascending colon, lymphatics of, in 
Auerbach's plexus, 125 

Bile duct, common, lymphatics of, and lym 

phatics of duodenum, relations, 114 
Blind end of intestine, formation of, 158 
by purse-string operation, 160 
by suture in two layers, 158 
Blood supply of intestines, 106 
of large intestine, no 
of small intestine, 106 
of stomach, 249 

Blood-vessels of intestine, 19 

examinations of, in localization, 118 
Bone bobbin, Robson's, decalcified, end-to-end 
anastomosis by, 153-158 
lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 170 
Button, Jaboulay's, lateral intestinal anastomo- 
sis by, 165-169 
Murphy, end-to-end anastomosis by, 150-153 
repair following use of, 47 
forty-two days, 53 
sixty-three days, 53 
thirty-six days, 51 
three days, 51 
Buttonhole suture, 90 
doubled, 90 

Carcinoma of intestine, 129 

Catgut, 65 

Cecal collecting trunks, anterior, anatomy of, 112 

posteripr, anatomy of, 112 
Ceco-appendicular collecting trunks, anatomy of, 

Cecum, lymphatics of, in 
Celloidin linen thread, 66 
Circle, vicious, 220 
! Circumcision clamp for intestine, 99 
Clamp, circumcision, for intestine, 99 

Gould's, 100 

Harrington's 104 

Kocher's crushing, 104 

Krause's, 100 

Scudder's, 100 
Clamps, 98 

for extensive resections of stomach, 100 

for gastroenterostomy, 100 

for stomach operations, 100 

gastric, 100 

intestinal, 98 

Maylard's method of using forceps for, 100 
Pean's method of using hemostatic forceps 
and rubber tube for, 100 
Colica media artery, 1 10 

Collecting trunks of appendix, anatomy of, 112 
Colon, ascending, lymphatics of, in 

descending, lymphatics of, 1 1 1 

iliopelvic, lymphatics of, in 

2 9 8 


Colon, transverse, lymphatics of, in 
Color of intestine in localization, 117 
Colostomy, 182 

anterior, 186-194 

inguinal, 182 
left, 183-186 

left inguinal, 183-186 

lumbar, 182 

permanent, 183 

temporary, 183 

with glass tube, 196 

with McGraw's rubber ligature, 194 
Connell's mattress method of lateral intestinal 
anastomosis, 164 

method of end-to-end anastomosis, 145-150 

through-and-through mattress suture, 91 
Continuous suture, through-and-through, 89 
Contractions, peristaltic, of intestine, in localiza- 
tion, 125 
Coronary chain of glands, 255 
Crushing clamp, Kocher's, 104 
Curved needle, method of holding, 67 

Moynihan's, Scudder's modification, 69 
Cushing right-angle continuous stitch, 81 

Decalcified bone bobbin, Robson's, end-to-end 

anastomosis by, 153-158 
Descending colon, lymphatics of, 111 
Distention of intestines, drainage of, 131 
Drainage of distended intestines, 131 
Duodenum, lymphatics of, 113 

and lymphatics of common bile duct, rela- 
tions, 114 

Elastic ligature, repair following use of, 63 
Eud-to-end anastomosis 130, 137-143 

by Harrington's segmented ring, 153-157 

by mattress stitch, 145-150 

by mechanical devices, 149 

by Murphy button, 150-153 

by Robson's decalcified bone bobbin, 153- 

Connell's method, 145-150 

dangers, 133 

eight days, 29 

fourteen days, 33 

of large intestine, six weeks, 37 

plain, 134 

three days, 25 
End-to-side anastomosis, 177-182 

Gould's method, 177-182 
Enterectomy, 128 
Excision of ulcer of stomach, 276-281 

Vallas' method, 276 
Experiments, Barbat's, with Murphy button, 47 
Beer's, with Jaboulay's button, 47 

Experiments, Cannon and Blake's, 219 
Harrington and Gould's, 20 
Mall's, on repair, 41 
Murphy's, with elastic ligature, 63 
Senn's, omental grafting, 144 

Fat, small masses of, in intestinal localization, 118 
Finney's method of gastroduodenostomy, 225 

Gould's modification, 225 
Food in stomach, movements of, after gastroin- 
testinal operations, 219 
Formation of blind end of intestine, 158 
by purse-string operation, 160 
by suture in two layers, 158 
Franck-Ssbanajew gastrostomy, 211 

Gangrene of intestine, 130 
Gant's left inguinal colostomy, 183 
Gastrectomy, partial, 269-276 
Gastric. See also Stomach. 
artery, 250 
chain of glands, 255 
Gastroduodenalis artery, 250 
Gastroduodenostomy, 222-235 
Finney's method, 225 

clamps for, 225 
Kocher's method, 233-235 
Gastroenterostomy, 237 
anterior, 246-249 

Wolfler's method, 246 
by plain suture, seventeen months, 39 
clamp for, 100 

peptic ulcer of jejunum after, 43, 49 
etiology, 43 
frequency, 43 
pathology, 45 
posterior, 237-246 
Mayo's method, 246 
Moynihan's method, 238 
Von Hacker's method, 237 
twelve days, 31 
twenty-one days, 35 
Gastroepiploica dextra artery, 250 

sinistra artery, 250 
Gastrogastrostomy, 282 
Wolfler's method, 282 
Gastrointestinal operations, movements of food 

in stomach after, 219 
Gastroplasty, 281 

application of principle of Heinecke-Mikulicz 
pyloroplasty to, 281 
Gastroplication, 293 

Moynihan's method, 293 
Gastrostomy, 202 

Ssbanajew-Franck, 210 
Witzel's, 206-210 



Gastrotomy, 201 
Glands, coronary chain of, 255 
gastric chain of, 255 
hepatic chain of, 255 
mesenteric, of small intestine, 113 
primary group, 113 
second group, 113 
third group, 113 
retropyloric chain of, 256 
splenic chain of, 255 
subpyloric chain of, 256 
Glass tube, colostomy with, 196 
Glover's through-and-through continuous su- 
ture, 89 
Gould's clamp, 100 
mattress stitch, 85 
method of end-to-side intestinal anastomosis, 

modification of Finney's gastroduodenostomy, 
Graft, omental, 144 

Hahn's method of stretching pylorus, 217 
Halsted mattress stitch, 84 

Harrington's ring, lateral intestinal anastomosis 
by, 169 

segmented ring, end-to-end anastomosis by, 153 

stomach clamp, 104 
Hartmann-Mikulicz line in pylorectomy, 259 
Hartmann's point of election in pylorectomy, 265 
Heinecke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, 221 

application of principle, to gastroplasty, 281 
Heister's buttonhole suture, 90 
Hepatic artery, 250 

chain of glands, 255 

Iliopelvic colon, lymphatics of, in 
Inguinal colostomy, 182 

left, 183-186 
Intestinal anastomosis, end-to-end, 130. See also 
End-to-end anastomosis. 
end-to-side, 177-182 

Gould's method, 177-182 
lateral, 162 

by Harrington's ring, 169 
by Jaboulay's button, 165-169 
by mattress suture, 164 
by McGraw's rubber ligature, 170-177 
by mechanical devices, 165 
by plain suture, 162 
by Robson's bone bobbin, 170 
five days, 27 
clamps, 98 
Maylard's method of using forceps for, 100 
Pean's method of using forceps and rubber 
tube for, 100 

Intestinal localization, 114 
color of intestine in, 117 
determination of direction of loop of intestine 

in, 118 
examination of blood-vessels of intestine in, 

length of intestine in, 117 
peristaltic contractions of intestine in, 125 
size of intestine in, 117 
small masses of fat in, 118 
thickness and transparency of mesentery in, 
of intestine in, 117 
wounds, repair of, 1 7 
Intestine, anatomy of, 106 
blind end, formation of, 158 

by purse-string operation, 160 
by suture in two layers, 158 
blood supply of, 106 
blood-vessels of, 19 

examination of, in localization, 118 
carcinoma of, 129 
color of, in localization, 117 
distention of, drainage in, 131 
experimental research on repair of, 20 
external coat, 17 
formation of blind end, 15S 

by purse-string operation, 160 
by suture in two layers, 158 
gangrene of, 130 
internal coat, 19 
large, blood supply of, no 

lymphatics of, in 
length of, in localization, 117 
loop of, determination of direction, in intestinal 

localization, 118 
lymphatics of, 19, m 
mucous coat, 19 
repair of, 23 
muscular coat, 18 
repair of, 24 
new growths of, 129 
operations upon, 128 

peristaltic contractions of, in localization, 125 
repair of, after introduction of elastic ligature, 63 
serous coat, 17 

repair of, 24 
size of, in localization, 117 
small, blood supply of, 106 
lymphatics of, 112 
mesenteric glands of, 113 
primary group, 113 
second group, 113 
third group, 113 
mesentery of, vascular anatomy, 109 
stricture of, 129 



Intestine, structure of, 17 
submucous coat, 18 

repair of, 41 
thickness of, in localization, 117 
valvular conniventes of, 117 

Jaboulay's button, lateral intestinal anastomosis 

by, 165-169 
Jejunoileum, lymphatics of, 112 
Jejunum, peptic ulcer of, after gastroenterostomy, 

etiology, 43 

frequency, 43 

pathology, 45 
Jobert-Senn suture, 92 

Knot, Richardson's one-hand, 75-77 

seamstress, 77-79 

square, tying of, 70-75 

surgeon's, 79 

tying, 70-75 
Kocher's crushing clamp, 104 

method of gastroduodenostomy, 233-235 
Krause's clamp, 100 

Lateral intestinal anastomosis, 162. See also 

Intestinal anastomosis, lateral. 
Leakage of suture, causes, 65 
Left inguinal colostomy, 183-186 
Lembert stitch, 83 

Length of intestine in localization, 117 
Ligature, elastic, repair following use of, 63 

McGraw's rubber, colostomy with, 194 

lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 170-177 
McLean's needle for, 171 
Line, Hartmann-Mikulicz, in pylorectomy, 259 

of section, determining of, in pylorectomy, 264 
Localization, intestinal, 114. See also Intestinal 

Loop of intestine, determination of directions, in 

localization, 118 
Loreta's method of stretching pylorus, 212 
Lumbar colostomy, 182 
Lymphatics of ascending colon, 1 1 1 

of cecum, in 

of descending colon, in 

of duodenum, 113 

and common bile duct, relations, 114 

of iliopelvic colon, in 

of intestine, 19, 11 1 

of jejunoileum, 112 

of large intestine, in 

of small intestine, 112 

of stomach, 19, 255 

of transverse colon, in 

of vermiform appendix, in 

Mall's experiments with animals, 41 

Mattress mesenteric suture, 91 
suture, 84 
Gould, 85 
Halsted, 84 

end-to-end anastomosis by, 145-150 
lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 164 
seromuscular penetrating, 92 
through-and-through, 91 
Maunsell's mattress mesenteric stitch, 91 
Maydl's left inguinal colostomy, 183 
Maylard's method of using forceps for intestinal 

clamps, 100 
Mayo's method of pylorectomy, 257 

modification of attaching jejunum to posterior 
wall of stomach, 246 
McGraw's rubber ligature, colostomy with, 194 
lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 170-177 
McLean's needle for, 171 
McLean's needle for McGraw's rubber ligature, 

Mechanical devices, end-to-end anastomosis by, 
lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 165 
Mesenteric glands of small intestine, 113 
primary group, 113 
second group, 113 
third group, 113 
suture, mattress, 91 
Mesentery of small intestine, vascular anatomy 
of, 109 
thickness and transparency of, in intestinal 
localization, 118 
Mikulicz-Hartmann line in pylorectomy, 259 
Mikulicz-Heinecke pyloroplasty, 221 

application of principle, to gastroplasty, 281 
Mikulicz's point of election in pylorectomy, 265 
Milliner's needle No. 3, 69 
Mixter's anterior colostomy, 186 
Movements of food in stomach after gastroin- 
testinal operations, 219 
Moynihan's curved needle, Scudder's modifica- 
tion, 69 
method of gastroplication, 293 
Mucous coat of stomach and intestine, 19 

repair of, 23 
Murphy button, end-to-end anastomosis by, 150— 

repair following use of, 47 
forty -two days, 53 
sixty-three days, 53 
thirty-six days, 51 
three days, 51 
purse-string suture, 88 
Muscular coat of stomach and intestine, 18 

repair of, 24 
Muscularis mucosae, 19 



Needle, curved, method of holding, 67 

McLean's, for McGraw's rubber ligature, 171 

Milliner's, No. 3, 69 

Moynihan's curved, Scudder's modification, 69 

Needles, 69 

New growths of intestine, 129 

Nothnagel's salt test, 125, 126 

Omental graft, 144 
One-hand knot, Richardson's, 75-77 
Operations for non-malignant stricture of pylorus, 
gastrointestinal, movements of food in stomach 

after, 219 
stomach, clamps for, 100 
upon intestines, 128 
upon stomach, 201 

Pagenstechee's celloidin linen thread, 66 

Partial gastrectomy, 269-276 

Pean's method of using hemostatic forceps and 

rubber tube in place of clamp, 100 
Peptic ulcers of jejunum after gastroenterostomy, 

43. 49 
etiology, 43 
frequency, 43 
pathology, 45 
Peristaltic contractions of intestine in localization, 


Permanent colostomy, 183 
Plain end-to-end anastomosis, 134 
suture, experiments with, 22 
table of, 22 
gastroenterostomy by, seventeen months, 39 
Plexus, Auerbach's, 125 
Posterior gastroenterostomy, 237-246 

von Hacker's method, 237 
Purse-string suture, 86 

formation of blind end of intestine by, 160 
Murphy, 88 
Pylorectomy, 249-269 

determining line of section in, 264 
Hartmann-Mikulicz line in, 259 
Hartmann's point of election in, 265 
Mayo's method, 257 
Mikulicz's point of election in, 265 
Pyloric artery, 250 
Pylorodiosis, 211 
Hahn's method, 217 
Loreta's method, 212 
Pyloroplasty, 221 

Heinecke-Mikulicz method, 221 

application of principle of, to gastro- 
plasty, 281 
Pylorus, stretching of, 211 
Hahn's method, 217 

Pylorus, stretching of, Loreta's method, 212 
stricture of, non-malignant, operations for, 218 

Repair, experiments on, 20 

following use of elastic ligature, 63 
of Murphy button, 47 
forty-two days, 53 
sixty-three days, 53 
thirty-six days, 51 
three days, 51 
of intestine after introduction of elastic ligature, 

Resections, extensive, of stomach, clamps for, 100 
Retropyloric chain of glands, 256 
Richardson's one-hand knot, 75-77 
Ring, Harrington's, lateral intestinal anastomosis 
by, 169 
segmented, end-to-end anastomosis by, 153— 

segmented, experiments with, 20 
table of, 21 

Robson's bone bobbin, lateral intestinal anasto- 
mosis by, 170 
decalcified bone bobbin, end-to-end anastomo- 
sis by, 153-158 
Rubber ligature, McGraw's, colostomy with, 194 
lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 170-177 
McLean's needle for, 171 
tubing for intestinal and small stomach clamps, 

Salt test, Nothnagel's, 125, 126 
Scudder's modification of Moynihan's curved 
needle, 69 
straight clamp, 100 
Seamstress knot, 77-79 
Segmented ring, experiments with, 20 
table of, 21 
Harrington's, end-to-end anastomosis by, 153 
Senn-Jobert suture, 92 
Seromuscular penetrating mattress suture, 92 

stitch, 80 
Serous coat of stomach and intestine, 17 

repair of, 24 
Silk, 66 

Size of intestine in localization, 117 
Splenic artery, 250 

chain of glands, 255 
Square knots, tying, 70-75 
Ssbanajew-Franck gastrostomy, 210 
Stitch. See Suture. 
Stomach, blood supply of, 249 
blood-vessels of, 19 
clamp, Gould's, 100 
Harrington's, 104 

3° 2 


Stomach clamp, Krause's, ioo 
Scudder's, ioo 
clamps, ioo 

experimental research on repair, 20 
external coat, 17 
food in, movements of, after gastrointestinal 

operations, 219 
internal coat, 19 
lymphatics of, 19, 255 
mucous coat, 19 
repair of, 23 
muscular coat, 18 
repair of, 24 
operations, 201 

clamps for, 100 
repair of, experimental research on, 20 
resections of, extensive, clamps for, 100 
serous coat, 17 

repair of, 24 
structure of, 17 
submucous coat, 18 

repair of, 41 
ulcer of, excision of, 276-281 
Vallas's method, 276 
Stretching pylorus, 211 
Hahn's method, 217 
Loreta's method, 212 
Stricture, non-malignant, of pylorus, operations 
for, 218 
of intestine, 129 
Submucous coat of stomach and intestine, 18 

repair of, 41 
Subpyloric chain of glands, 256 
Surgeon's knot, 79 
Suture, buttonhole, 90 

Connell's through-and-through mattress, 91 

Cushing right-angle continuous, 81 

Glover's, 8g 

Heister's, 90 

in two layers, formation of blind end of intestine 

by, 158 
Jobert-Senn, 92 
leakage of, causes, 65 
Lembert, 83 
materials, 65 
mattress, 84 

end-to-end anastomosis by, 145-150 

Gould, 85 

Halsted, 84 

lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 164 

mesenteric, 91 

Suture, Maunsell's mattress mesenteric, 91 
plain, experiments with, 22 
table of, 22 

gastroenterostomy by, seventeen months, 39 

lateral intestinal anastomosis by, 162 
purse-string, 86 

formation of blind end of intestine by, 160 

Murphy, 88 
Senn-Jobert, 92 
seromuscular, 80 

penetrating mattress, 92 
special technic of, 79 
through-and-through continuous, 89 

mattress, 91 

Technic, special, of sutures, 79 
Temporary colostomy, 183 

Thickness and transparency of mesentery in in- 
testinal localization, 118 

of intestine in localization, 117 
Through-and-through continuous suture, 89 

mattress suture, 91 
Transverse colon, lymphatics of, in 
Tube, glass, colostomy with, 196 
Tunica propria, 19 
Tying knots, 70-75 

square knots, 70-75 

Ulcer of stomach, excision of, 276-281 
Vallas's method, 276 
peptic, of jejunum, after gastroenterostomy, 43, 

etiology, 43 
frequency, 43 
pathology, 45 

Vallas's method of excision of ulcer of stomach, 

Valvulee conniventes of intestine, 117 
Vasa brevia, 250 

Vermiform appendix, burying stump of, 85, 

collecting trunks of, anatomy, 112 

lymphatics of, in 
Vicious circle, 220 
Von Hacker's gastroenterostomy, 237 

Witzel's gastrostomy, 206-210 
Wblfler's gastroenterostomy, 246 

gastrogastrostomy, 282 
Wounds, intestinal, repair of, 1 7 










EACH year in the list of text-books recommended in the various colleges a 
decided gain is shown for the Saunders publications. This year in the list of 
recommended books published by 166 colleges (the other 22 did not publish lists) 
the Saunders books are mentioned 3054 times, as against 2759 the previous year 
— an increase of 295. What these figures really mean is that in each of the 
medical colleges in this country an average of 1854 { l 7]4 tne previous year) of 
the teaching books employed are publications issued by W. B. Saunders Company. 
And this increase is not due alone to the publication of new text-books, but to a 
very gratifiying increase in the recommendation of text-books of some years' 
standing — books that, because of their recognized superiority, have become 
standard. For instance: Anders' Practice shows an increase of 15 ; Ashton's 
Gynecology, an increase of 23 ; Boston's Clinical Diagnosis, 13 ; Draper's Legal 
Medicine, 10; Hirst's Diseases of Women, 13 ; Holland's Chemistry, 22 ; Howell's 
Physiology, 54 ; Sahli's Diagnostic Methods, 33 ; Stelwagon's Diseases of the 
Skin, 13. These are but examples of similar remarkable gains throughout the 
entire list, and is undoubted evidence that the Saunders text-books are 
recognized as the best on their several subjects. 

A Complete Catalogue of our Publications will be Sent upon Request 


Diseases of the Skin 

A Treatise on Diseases of the Skin. For Advanced Students and 
Practitioners. By Henry W. Stelwagon, M. D., Ph. D., Professor of 
Dermatology in the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. Hand- 
some octavo volume of 1135 pages, with 258 text-cuts and 32 full- 
page colored lithographic and half-tone plates. Cloth, $6.00 net; 
Sheep or Half Morocco, $7.50 net. 


The demand for five editions of this work in a period of five years, and the 
many gratifying review notices indicate beyond a doubt the practical character of 
the book. In preparing the work the predominant aim kept in view was to sup- 
ply the physician with a treatise written on plain and practical lines, giving abun- 
dant helpful case illustrations. In this edition the section on Tropical Skin 
Diseases has been very thoroughly revised and a number of unusual illustrations 
added. It is the most up-to-date work on skin diseases published. 


John T. Bowen, M.D., 

Assistant Professor of Dermatology, Harvard University Medical School, Boston. 
" It gives me great pleasure to endorse Dr. Stelwagon's book. The clearness of description 
is a marked feature. It is also very carefully compiled. It is one of the best text-books yet 
published and a credit to American dermatology." 

George T. Elliot, M. D.. 

Professor of Dermatology, Cornell University. 

"It is a book that I recommend to my class at Cornell, because for conservative judgment, 
for accurate observation, and for a thorough appreciation of the essential position of dermatol- 
ogy, I think it holds first place." 

Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 

"We can cordially recommend Dr. Stelwagon's book to the profession as the best text- 
book on dermatology, for the advanced student and general practitioner, that has been brought 
strictly up to date. . . . The photographic illustrations are numerous, and many of them are 
of great excellence." 


Diseases of the Eye 

Just Issued— The New (5th) Edition, Enlarged 

Diseases of the % Eye : A Handbook of Ophthalmic Practice. 
By G. E. DeSchweinitz, M.D., Professor of Ophthalmology in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, etc. Handsome octavo of 894 
pages, 313 text-illustrations, and 6 chromo-lithographic plates. Cloth, 
#5.00 net; Sheep or Half Morocco, $6.50 net. 


For this new edition the text has been very thoroughly revised, and the work 
enlarged by the addition of new matter to the extent of some one hundred pages. 
There have been added, amongst other subjects, chapters on the following : X-Ray 
Treatment of Epithelioma, Xeroderma Pigmentosum ; Purulent Conjunctivitis of 
Young Girls ; Jequiritol and Jequiritol Serum ; X-ray Treatment of Trachoma ; 
Infected Marginal Ulcer ; Keratitis Punctata Syphilitica ; Uveitis and Its Varieties ; 
Eye- ground Lesions of Hereditary Syphilis ; Macular Atrophy of the Retina ; 
Worth's Amblyoscope ; Stovain, Alypin ; Motais' Operation for Ptosis ; Kuhnt- 
Miiller's Operation for Ectropion ; Haab's Method for Foreign Bodies ; and 
Sweet's X-Ray Method of Localizing Foreign Bodies. Other chapters have been 
rewritten. The excellence of the illustrative feature has been maintained. 


Samuel Theobald, M.D., 

Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
" It is a work that I have held in high esteem, and is one of the two or three books upon 
the eye which I have been in the habit of recommending to my students in the Johns Hopkins 
Medical School." 

W. Franklin Coleman, M. D., 

Professor of Diseases of the Eye, Postgraduate Medical School, Chicago. 

"I am very much pleased with deSchweinitz's work and will recommend it to the members 
of my class as a most reliable, complete, and up to date text-book." 

British Medical Journal 

"A clearly written, comprehensive manual. One which we can commend to students as a 
reliable text-book, written with an evident knowledge of the wants of those entering upon the 
study of this special branch of medical science." 


Diseases of Women 

With Beautiful Illustrations 

A Text-Book of Gynecology. By J. Clarence Webster, M. D. 
(Edin.), F. R. C. P. E., Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Rush 
Medical College, in Affiliation with the University of Chicago ; Obstetri- 
cian and Gynecologist to the Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago. Large 
octavo volume of 712 pages, with 372 magnificent text-illustrations and 
10 colored plates. Cloth, $7.00 net; Half Morocco, $8.50 net. 


This entirely new work on diseases of women is based on Dr. Webster's 
extended clinical experience, and unusual prominence is given "to the scienti- 
fic basis of each subject under consideration. Special endeavor has been made 
to include all the important original investigations of recent years, so that the work 
represents the present-day knowledge upon a subject of the greatest importance to 
every practitioner. Indeed, Dr. Webster has written this work especially for the 
general practitioner, discussing the clinical features of the subject in their widest 
relations to general practice rather than from the standpoint of specialism. The 
magnificent illustrations, three hundred and seventy-two in number, are nearly all 
original. Drawn by expert anatomic artists under Dr. Webster's direct super- 
vision, they portray the anatomy of the parts and the steps in the operations with 
rare clearness and exactness. These illustrations, selected because of their 
practical and technical value, form a rich collection, supplementing a text of 
unusual conciseness. 

Howard A. Kelly, M.D., 

Professor of Gynecology, Johns Hopkins University, 

" It is undoubtedly one of the best works which has been put on the market within recent 
years, showing from start to finish Dr. Webster's well-known thoroughness. The illustrations 
are also of the highest order. 


Text-Book of Obstetric/* 

A Text-Book of Obstetrics. By J. Clarence Webster,. M.JD. (Edin.), 
F. R. C. P. E., Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Rush Medical 
College, in Affiliation with the University of Chicago ; Obstetrician and 
Gynecologist to the Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago. Handsome octavo 
volume of 767 pages, beautifully illustrated, including many in colors. 
Cloth, $5.00 net; Sheep or Half Morocco, #6.50 net. 


This entirely new work is written for the student of obstetrics as well as for 
the active practitioner. The anatomic changes accompanying pregnancy, labor, 
and the puerperium are described more fully and lucidly than in any other text- 
book on the subject. The exposition of these sections is based mainly upon 
studies of frozen specimens, in which department the author has had a larger 
experience than any other worker. Unusual consideration is given to embryo- 
logic and physiologic data of importance in their relation to obstetrics. Great 
care was taken in the selection of the illustrations, aiming to meet the varied re- 
quirements of both the undergraduate and the practising physician. The book 
expresses the most advanced thought of the day. 


Medical Record, New York 

" The author's remarks on asepsis and antisepsis are admirable, the chapter on eclampsia 
is full of good material, and . . . the book can be cordially recommended as a safe guide." 

Buffalo Medical journal 

" As a practical text-book on obstetrics for both student and practitioner, there is left very 
little to be desired, it being as near perfection as any compact work that has been published." 

Dublin Journal of Medical Science 

" Both to the student . . . and to the practitioner who requires the latest opinion on any 
point of practice, Dr. Webster's book will be of the greatest value." 


Brtihl, Politzer, arid Smith's 

Atlas and Epitome of Otology. By Gustav Bruhl, M. D., of 
Berlin, with the collaboration of Professor Dr. A. Politzer, of 
Vienna. Edited, with additions, by S. MacCuen Smith, M.D., Pro- 
fessor of Otology in the Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. 
With 244 colored figures on 39 lithographic plates, 99 text illustra- 
tions, and 292 pages of text. Cloth, $3.00 net. In Saunders' Hand- 
Atlas Series 


The work is both didactic and clinical in its teaching. A special feature is 
the very complete exposition of the minute anatomy of the ear, a working knowl- 
edge of which is so essential to an intelligent conception of the science of otology. 
The association of Professor Politzer and the use of so many valuable specimens 
from his notably rich collection especially enhance the value of the treatise. The 
work contains everything of importance in the elementary study of otology. 

Clarence J. Blake, M. D., 

Professor of Otology in Harvard University Medical School, Boston. 

" The most complete work of its kind as yet published, and one commending itself to both 
the student and the teacher in the character and scope of its illustrations." 

Haab arid deSchweinitz's 
Operative Ophthalmology 

Atlas and Epitome of Operative Ophthalmology. By Dr. O. 

Haab, of Zurich. Edited, with additions, by G. E. de Schweinitz, 
M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology in the University of Pennsylvania. 
With 30 colored lithographic plates, 154 text-cuts, and 375 pages of 
text. In Saunders' Hand-Atlas Series. Cloth, $3.50 net. 


Dr. Haab's Atlas of Operative Ophthalmology will be found as beautiful and 
as practical as his two former atlases. The work represents the author' s thirty 
years' experience in eye work. The various operative interventions are described 
with all the precision and clearness that such an experience brings. Recognizing 
the fact that mere verbal descriptions are frequently insufficient to give a clear 
idea of operative procedures, Dr. Haab has taken particular care to illustrate 
plainly the different parts of the operations. 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 

" The descriptions of the various operations are so clear and full that the volume can well 
hold place with more pretentious text-books." 


Haab and DeSchweinitz's 
External Diseases qf the Eye 

Atlas and Epitome of External Diseases of the Eye. By Dr. 0. 

Haab, of Zurich. Edited, with additions, by G. E. deSchweinitz, 
M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Pennsylvania. With 
98 colored illustrations on 48 lithographic plates and 232 pages of 
text. Cloth, $3.00 net. In Saunders' Hand-Atlas Series. 


Conditions attending diseases of the external eye, which are often so complicated, 
have probably never been more clearly and comprehensively expounded than in 
the forelying work, in which the pictorial most happily supplements the verbal 
description. The price of the book is remarkably low. 

The Medical Record, New York 

" The work is excellently suited to the student of ophthalmology and to the practising 
physician. It cannot fail to attain a well-deserved popularity." 

Haab and DeSchweinitzV 

Atlas and Epitome of Ophthalmoscopy and Ophthalmoscopic 
Diagnosis. By Dr. O. Haab, of Zurich. From the Third Revised 
and Enlarged German Edition. Edited, with additions, by G. E. 
deSchweinitz, M. D., Professor of Ophthalmology, University of 
Pennsylvania. With 152 colored lithographic illustrations and 85 
pages of text. Cloth, $3.00 net. In Saunders' Hand-Atlas Series. 

The great value of Prof. Haab's Atlas of Ophthalmoscopy and Ophthalmo- 
scopic Diagnosis has been fully established and entirely justified an English 
translation. Not only is the student made acquainted with carefully prepared 
ophthalmoscopic drawings done into well-executed lithographs of the most im- 
portant fundus changes, but, in many instances, plates of the microscopic lesions 
are added. The whole furnishes a manual of the greatest possible service. 

The Lancet, London 

"We recommend it as a work that should be in the ophthalmic wards or in the library of 
every hospital into which ophthalmic cases are received." 


Diseases of Women 

Fifth Revised Edition 

A Text-Book of Diseases of Women. By Charles B. Penrose, 
M. D., Ph. D., formerly Professor of Gynecology in the University of 
Pennsylvania; Surgeon to the Gynecean Hospital, Philadelphia. Oc- 
tavo volume of 550 pages, with 225 fine original illustrations. Cloth, 

#3-75 net. 


Regularly every year a new edition of this excellent text-book is called for, 
and it appears to be in as great favor with physicians as with students. Indeed, 
this book has taken its place as the ideal work for the general practitioner. The 
author presents the best teaching of modern gynecology, untrammeled by anti- 
quated ideas and methods. In every case the most modern and progressive 
technique is adopted, and the main points are made clear by excellent illustra- 
tions. The new edition has been carefully revised, much new matter has been 
added, and a number of new original illustrations have been introduced. In its 
revised form this volume continues to be an admirable exposition of the present 
status of gynecologic practice. 


Howard A. Kelly. M. D., 

Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 'Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 
" I shall value very highly the copy of Penrose's ' Diseases of Women ' received. I have 
already recommended it to my class as THE BEST book." 

E. E. Montgomery, M. D„ 

Professor of Gynecology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. 
" The copy of ' A Text-Book of Diseases of Women ' by Penrose, received to-day. I have 
looked over it and admire it very much. I have no doubt it will have a large sale, as it justly 

Bristol Medico-Chirurgical Journal 

" This is an excellent work which goes straight to the mark. . . . The book may be taken 
as a trustworthy exposition of modern gynecology." 


The American 
Text-Book of Obstetric/* 

Second Edition, Thoroughly Revised and Enlarged 

The American Text=Book of Obstetrics. In two volumes. Edited 
by Richard C. Norris, M.D., Assistant Professor of Obstetrics in the 
University of Pennsylvania; Art Editor, Robert L. Dickinson, M.D., 
Assistant Obstetrician, Long Island College Hospital, N. Y. Two 
handsome octavo volumes of about 600 pages each; nearly 900 illus- 
trations, including 49 colored and half-tone plates. Per volume: 
Cloth, $3.50 net ; Sheep or Half Morocco, $4.50 net. 


Since the appearance of the first edition of this work many important advances 
have been made in the science and art of obstetrics. The results of bacteriologic 
and of chemicobiologic research as applied to the pathology of midwifery ; the wider 
range of the surgery of pregnancy, labor, and of the puerperal period, embrace 
new problems in obstetrics. In this new edition, therefore, a thorough and critical 
revision was required, some of the chapters being entirely rewritten, and others 
brought up to date by careful scrutiny. A number of new illustrations have been 
added, and some that appeared in the first edition have been replaced by others 
of greater excellence. By reason of these extensive additions the new edition 
has been presented in two volumes, in order to facilitate ease in handling. The 
price, however, remains unchanged. 


Alex. J. C. Skene, M. D., 

Late Professor of Gynecology, Long Island College Hospital, Brookiyn. 
" Permit me to say that ' The American Text-Book of Obstetrics ' is the most magnificent 
medical work that I have ever seen. I congratulate you and thank you for this superb work, 
which alone is sufficient to place you first in the ranks of medical publishers." 

Matthew D. Mann, M. D., 

Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the University of Buffalo. 

" I like it exceedingly and have recommended the first volume as a text-book for out 
sophomore class. It is certainly a most excellent work. I know of none better." 

American journal of the Medical Sciences 

" As an authority, as a book of reference, as a ' working book ' for the student or practi 
Soner, we commend it because we believe there is no better." 


Greene and Brooks 9 
Genito-Urinary Diseases 

A Text=Book of Genito-Urinary Diseases. By Robert H. Greene, 
M. D., Professor of Genito-Urinary Surgery at Fordham University ; 
and Harlow Brooks, M. D., Assistant Professor of Pathology, Univer- 
sity and Bellevue Hospital Medical School. Octavo of 550 pages, 
profusely illustrated. 


This new work covers completely the subject of genito-urinary diseases, pre- 
senting both the medical and surgical sides. It has been designed as a work of 
quick reference, and has therefore been written in a clear, condensed style, so 
that the information can be readily grasped and retained. Kidney diseases are 
very elaborately detailed, and especially well presented is surgery of the kidney. 
The text is profusely illustrated with original line-drawings. 

Gleason on Nose, Throat, 
and Ear 

A Manual of Diseases of the Nose, Throat, and Ear. By E. 

Baldwin Gleason, M. D., LL. D., Clinical Professor of Otology, 
Medico-Chirurgical College, "Philadelphia. i2mo of 556 pages, pro- 
fusely illustrated. Flexible leather, $2.50 net. 


Anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the upper respiratory tract and ear 
have been carefully presented, the author rightly believing such knowledge essen- 
tial to the efficacious treatment of diseases of these organs. Methods of treat- 
ment have been simplified as much as possible, so ttiat in most instances only 
those methods, drugs, and operations have been advised which have proved 
essential. A valuable feature consists of the collection of formulas. 

American Text=Book of Qenito=Urinary Diseases, Syphilis, and 
Diseases of the Skin. Edited by L. Bolton Bangs, M. D., late 
Professor of Genito-Urinary Surgery, University and Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College, New York ; and W. A. Hardaway, M. D., Professor 
of Diseases of the Skin, Missouri Medical College. Octavo, 1229 
pages, 300 engravings, 20 colored plates. Cloth, $7.00 net. 


Mracek arid Stelwagon's 
Diseases of the Skin 

Atlas and Epitome of Diseases of the Skin. By Prof. Dr. Franz 
Mracek, of Vienna. Edited, with additions, by Henry W. Stelwagon, 
M. D., Professor of Dermatology in the Jefferson Medical College, 
Philadelphia. With 77 colored plates, 50 half-tone illustrations, and 
280 pages of text. In Saunders 1 Hand- Atlas Series. Clo., #4.00 net. 


This volume, the outcome of years of scientific an"d artistic work, contains, 
together with colored plates of unusual beauty, numerous illustrations in black, 
and a text comprehending the entire field of dermatology. The illustrations are 
all original and prepared from actual cases in Mracek' s clinic, and the execution 
of the plates is superior to that of any, even the most expensive, dermatologic 
atlas hitherto published. 

American Journal of the Medical Sciences 

" The advantages which we see in this book and which recommend it to our minds are: 
First, its handiness ; secondly, the plates, which are excellent as regards drawing, color, and the 
diagnostic points which they bring out." 

Mracek arid Bangs' 
Syphilis and Venereal 

Atlas and Epitome of Syphilis and the Venereal Diseases. 

By Prof. Dr. Franz Mracek, of Vienna. Edited, with additions, by 
L. Bolton Bangs, M. D., late Prof, of Genito-Urinary Surgery, Univer- 
sity and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. With 71 
colored plates and 122 pages of text. Cloth, $3.50 net. In Saunders' 
Hand-Atlas Series. 


According to the unanimous opinion of numerous authorities, to whom the 
original illustrations of this book were presented, they surpass in beauty anything 
of the kind that has been produced in this field, not only in Germany, but 
throughout the literature of the world. 

Robert L. Dickinson, M. D., 

Art Editor of " The American Text-Book of Obstetrics." 
" The book that appeals instantly to me for the strikingly successful, valuable, and graphic 
character of its illustrations is the ' Atlas of Syphilis and the Venereal Diseases.' I know of 
nothing in this country that can compare with it." 


Modern Obstetrics 

Modern Obstetrics: General and Operative. By W. A. Newman 
Dorland, A. M., M. D., .Assistant Instructor in Obstetrics, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania; Associate in Gynecology in the Philadelphia 
Polyclinic. Handsome octavo volume of 797 pages, with 201 illustra- 
tions. Cloth, $4.00 net. 

Second Edition, Revised and Greatly Enlarged 

In this edition the book has been entirely rewritten and very greatly enlarged. 
Among the new subjects introduced are the surgical treatment of puerperal sepsis, 
infant mortality, placental transmission of diseases, serum-therapy of puerperal 
sepsis, etc. By new illustrations the text has been elucidated, and the subject pre- 
sented in a most instructive and acceptable form. 

Journal of the American Medical Association 

" This work deserves commendation, and that it has received what it deserves at the hands 
of the profession is attested by the fact that a second edition is called for within such a short 
time. Especially deserving of praise is the chapter on puerperal sepsis." 

Davis 9 Obstetric and 
Gynecologic Nursing 

Obstetric and Gynecologic Nursing. By Edward P. Davis, A. M., 
M. D., Professor of Obstetrics in the Jefferson Medical College and 
Philadelphia Polyclinic; Obstetrician and Gynecologist, Philadelphia 
Hospital. i2mo of 400 pages, illustrated. Buckram, $1.75 net. 

Obstetric nursing demands some knowledge of natural pregjiancy, and gyne- 
cologic nursing, really a branch of surgical nursing, requires special instruction 
and training. This volume presents this information in the most convenient 
form. This second edition has been very carefully revised throughout, bringing 
the subject down to date. 

The Lancet, London 

" Not only nurses, but even newly qualified medical men, would learn a great deal by a 
perusal of this book. It is written in a clear and pleasant style, and is a work we can recom- 


Schaffer and Edgar's 

Labor and Operative Obstetrics 

Atlas and Epitome of Labor and Operative Obstetrics. By Dr. 

0. Schaffer, of Heidelberg. From the Fifth Revised and Enlarged 
German Edition. Edited, with additions, by J. Clifton Edgar, M. D., 
Professor of Obstetrics and Clinical Midwifery, Cornell University Medi- 
cal School, New York. With 14 lithographic plates in colors, 139 other 
illustrations, and in pages of text. Cloth, $2.00 net. In Saunders' 
Hand-Atlas Series. 

This book presents the act of parturition and the various obstetric operations 
in a series of easily understood illustrations, accompanied by a text treating the 
subject from a practical standpoint. 1 The author has added many accurate repre- 
sentations of manipulations and conditions never before clearly illustrated. 

American Medicine 

"The method of presenting obstetric operations is admirable. The drawings, representing 
original work, have the commendable merit of illustrating instead of confusing. It would be 
difficult to find one hundred pages in better form or containing more practical points for 
students or practitioners." 

Schaffer and Edgar's 

Obstetric Diagnosis and Treatment 

Atlas and Epitome of Obstetric Diagnosis and Treatment. By 

Dr. O. Schaffer, of Heidelberg. From the Second Revised German 
Edition. Edited, with additions, by J. Clifton Edgar, M. D., Professor 
of Obstetrics and Clinical Midwifery, Cornell University Medical School, 
N. Y. With 122 colored figures on 56 plates, 38 text-cuts, and 315 
pages of text. Cloth, $3.00 net. In Saunders' Hand-Atlas Series. 

This book treats particularly of obstetric operations, and, besides the wealth 
of beautiful lithographic illustrations, contains an extensive text of great value. 
This text deals with the practical, clinical side of the subject. The symptoma- 
tology and diagnosis are discussed with all necessary fullness, and the indications 
for treatment are definite and complete. 

New York Medical Journal 

" The illustrations are admirably executed, as they are in all of these atlases, and the text 
can safely be commended, not only as elucidatory of the plates, but as expounding the scien- 
tific midwifery of to-day." 1 


Ogden on the Urine 

Clinical Examination of Urine and Urinary Diagnosis. A Clinical 
Guide for the Use of Practitioners and Students of Medicine and Sur- 
gery. By J. Bergen Ogden, M. D., Late Instructor in Chemistry, 
Harvard University Medical School; Formerly Assistant in Clinical 
Pathology, Boston City Hospital. Octavo, 418 pages, 54 illustrations, 
and a number of colored plates. Cloth, $3.00 net. 


In this edition the work has been brought absolutely down to the present day. 
Important changes have been made in connection with the determination of Urea, 
Uric Acid, and Total Nitrogen ; and the subjects of Cryoscopy and Beta-Oxybutyric 
Acid have been given a place. Special attention has been paid to diagnosis by 
the character of the urine, the diagnosis of diseases of the kidneys and urinary 
passages ; an enumeration of the prominent clinical symptoms of each disease ; 
and the peculiarities of the urine in certain general diseases. 

The Lancet, London 

" We consider this manual to have been well compiled ; and the author's own experience, 
so clearly stated, renders the volume a useful one both for study and reference." 

Vecki's Sexual Impotence 

The Pathology and Treatment of Sexual Impotence. By Victor 
G. Vecki, M. D. From the Second Revised and Enlarged German 
Edition. i2mo volume of 329 pages. Cloth, $2.00 net. 


The subject of impotence has but seldom been treated in this country in the 
truly scientific spirit that its pre-eminent importance deserves, and this volume will 
come to many as a revelation of the possibilities of therapeutics in this important 
field. The reading part of the English-speaking medical profession has passed 
judgment on this monograph. The whole subject of sexual impotence and its 
treatment is discussed by the author in an exhaustive and thoroughly scientific 
manner. In this edition the book has been thoroughly revised, and new matter 
has been added, especially to the portion dealing with treatment. 

Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 

" A scientific treatise upon an important and much neglected subject. . . . The treatment 
of impotence in general and of sexual neurasthenia is discriminating and judicious." 


American Pocket Dictionary Fifth Edition. Re™ed 

The American Pocket Medical Dictionary. Edited by W. A. 
Newman Dorland, M. D., Assistant Obstetrician to the Hospital 
of the University of Pennsylvania. Containing the pronunciation 
and definition of the principal words used in medicine and kindred 
sciences. Flexible leather, with gold edges, $1.00 net; with thumb 
index, $1.25 net. 
James W. Holland, M. D., 

Professor of Medical Chemistry and Toxicology, and Dean, Jefferson Medical College, 

" I am struck at once with admiration at the compact size and attractive exterior. I 
can recommend it to. our students without reserve." 

Stelwagon's Essentials of Skin "^SStSS 00 

Essentials of Diseases of the Skin. By Henry W. Stel- 
wagon, M. D., Ph.D., Professor of Dermatology in the Jeffer- 
son Medical College, Philadelphia. Post-octavo of 276 pages, 
with 72 text-illustrations and 8 plates. Cloth, $1.00 net. In 
Saunders' Question- Comp end Series. 
The Medical News 

" In line with our present knowledge of diseases of the skin. . . . Continues to main- 
tain the high standard of excellence for which these question compends have been noted." 

Wolffs Medical Chemistry a tJ^taS3 tad 

Essentials of Medical Chemistry, Organic and Inorganic. 
Containing also Questions on Medical Physics, Chemical Physiol- 
ogy, Analytical Processes, Urinalysis, and Toxicology. By Law- 
rence Wolff, M. D., Late Demonstrator of Chemistry, Jefferson 
Medical College. Revised by Smith Ely Jelliffe, M. D., Ph.D., 
Professor of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy of the City of 
New York. Post-octavo of 222 pages. Cloth, $1.00 net. In 
Saunders' Question- Comp end Series. 

Martin's Minor Surgery, Bandaging, and the Venereal 

Diseases Second Edition, Revised 

Essentials of Minor Surgery, Bandaging, and Venereal 
Diseases. By Edward Martin, A. M., M. D., Professor of Clin- 
ical Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, etc. Post-octavo, 166 
pages, with 78 illustrations. Cloth, $1.00 net. In Saunders' 
Question- Compend Series. 

Senn's Genito-Urinary Tuberculosis 

Tuberculosis of the Genito-Urinary Organs, Male and 
Female. By N. Senn, M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., Professor of Surgery 
in Rush Medical College. Octavo of 317 pages, illustrated. 
Cloth, $3.00 net. 


. . _ , . -~. ,. Fifth Revised Edition 

American Pocket Dictionary just issued 

The American Pocket Medical Dictionary. Edited by W, 
A. Newman Dorland, AM., M. D., Assistant Obstetrician to the 
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania ; Fellow of the American 
Academy of Medicine. Over 550 pages. Full leather, limp, with 
gold edges. $1.00 net; with patent thumb index, $1.25 net. 

James W. Holland, M. D.. 

Professor of Medical Chemistry and Toxicology at the Jefferson Medical College, 

" I am struck at once with admiration at the compact size and attractive exterior. I 
can recommend it to our students without reserve." 

Recently Issued 

Cragin' s Gynecology. , n«w (6th) Edition 

Essentials of Gynecology. By Edwin B. Cragin, M. D., 
Professor of Obstetrics, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New 
York. Crown octavo, 215 pages, 62 illustrations. Cloth, $1.00 
net. In Saunders' Question- Compend Series- 

The Medical Record, New York 

" A handy volume and a distinct improvement of students' compends in general. 
No author who was not himself a practical gynecologist could have consulted the 
student's needs sc thoroughly as Dr. Cragin has done." 

Boisliniere's Obstetric Accidents, Emergencies, and 

Obstetric Accidents, Emergencies, and Operations. By 
the late L. Ch. Boisliniere, M. D., Emeritus Professor of Ob- 
stetrics, St. Louis Medical College ; Consulting Physician, St. Louis 
Female Hospital. 381 pages, illustrated. Cloth, $2.00 net. 

British Medical Journal 

" It is clearly and concisely written, and is evidently the work of a teacher and practi- 
tioner of large experience. Its merit lies in the judgment which comes from experience." 

AshtOn'S Obstetrics. Recently Issued— New (6th) Edition 

Essentials of Obstetrics. By W. Easterly Ashton, M. D., 
Professor of Gynecology in the Medico-Chirurgical College, Phila- 
delphia. Crown octavo, 256 pages, 75 illustrations. Cloth, $1.00 
net. In Saunders' Question-Compend Series. 

Southern Practitioner 

"An excellent little volume containing correct and practical knowledge. An admir- 
able compend, and the best condensation we have seen." 

Barton and Wells' Medical Thesaurus Recently issued 

A Thesaurus of Medical Words and Phrases. By Wilfred 
M. Barton, M. D., Assistant to Professor of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics, Georgetown University,- Washington, D. C. ; and 
Walter A. Wells, M. D., Demonstrator of Laryngology, George- 
town University, Washington, D. C. i2mo of 534 pages. Flex- 
ible leather, #2.50 net ; with thumb index, $3.00 net.